当前位置:英美者>>游学英美>>英美文化>>节日>>浏览文章    

Halloween Comes to America

2010年07月07日  所属:节日  来源:history.com  作者:history.com

Halloween即万圣夜又叫万圣节之夜或者万圣节前夕,本文用英文介绍Halloween在美国的发展和习俗。

Halloween Comes to America

As European immigrants came to America, they brought their varied Halloween customs with them. Because of the rigid Protestant belief systems that characterized early New England, celebration of Halloween in colonial times was extremely limited there.

It was much more common in Maryland and the southern colonies. As the beliefs and customs of different European ethnic groups, as well as the American Indians, meshed, a distinctly American version of Halloween began to emerge. The first celebrations included "play parties," public events held to celebrate the harvest, where neighbors would share stories of the dead, tell each other's fortunes, dance, and sing. Colonial Halloween festivities also featured the telling of ghost stories and mischief-making of all kinds. By the middle of the nineteenth century, annual autumn festivities were common, but Halloween was not yet celebrated everywhere in the country.

In the second half of the nineteenth century, America was flooded with new immigrants. These new immigrants, especially the millions of Irish fleeing Ireland's potato famine of 1846, helped to popularize the celebration of Halloween nationally. Taking from Irish and English traditions, Americans began to dress up in costumes and go house to house asking for food or money, a practice that eventually became today's "trick-or-treat" tradition. Young women believed that, on Halloween, they could divine the name or appearance of their future husband by doing tricks with yarn, apple parings, or mirrors.

In the late 1800s, there was a move in America to mold Halloween into a holiday more about community and neighborly get-togethers, than about ghosts, pranks, and witchcraft.

At the turn of the century, Halloween parties for both children and adults became the most common way to celebrate the day. Parties focused on games, foods of the season, and festive costumes. Parents were encouraged by newspapers and community leaders to take anything "frightening" or "grotesque" out of Halloween celebrations. Because of their efforts, Halloween lost most of its superstitious and religious overtones by the beginning of the twentieth century.

By the 1920s and 1930s, Halloween had become a secular, but community-centered holiday, with parades and town-wide parties as the featured entertainment. Despite the best efforts of many schools and communities, vandalism began to plague Halloween celebrations in many communities during this time. By the 1950s, town leaders had successfully limited vandalism and Halloween had evolved into a holiday directed mainly at the young. Due to the high numbers of young children during the fifties baby boom, parties moved from town civic centers into the classroom or home, where they could be more easily accommodated. Between 1920 and 1950, the centuries-old practice of trick-or-treating was also revived. Trick-or-treating was a relatively inexpensive way for an entire community to share the Halloween celebration. In theory, families could also prevent tricks being played on them by providing the neighborhood children with small treats. A new American tradition was born, and it has continued to grow. Today, Americans spend an estimated $6.9 billion annually on Halloween, making it the country's second largest commercial holiday.

相关:

Superstitions of Halloween  
Halloween Comes to America  
Today’s Traditions of Halloween  
Halloween’s Ancient Origins


节日 最新资讯
· 清明节的来历英文简介
· April Fools’ Day
· 英美者情人节专辑
· 春节快乐!
· 万圣节相关的英语表达
· 中秋节的来历、中秋节的简介(英语介绍)
· 世界各地的父亲节的日期和庆祝
· Father’s Day还是Fathers’ Day?
· 父亲节( Father’s Day)英语介绍
· Children’s Day来历英文介绍

英美者 最新资讯
· 英美文化研究:英语姓名的引申意义
· 英美文化讲座:美国的地名
· 英美文化讲座:谈一谈英国的地名
· 从英语汉语语言差异看文化不同
· 清明节的来历英文简介
· April Fools’ Day
· Morning Song:英语美文诗歌
· 《白雪公主》中英文对照节选
· [mp3]经济不景气,西班牙人学英语热
· 经济不景气迫使西班牙人学英语(英语新闻mp3)
· 随身英语听力材料:图书馆出借电子书
经济不景气迫使西班牙人学
瑞士公投拒六周带薪假期(英
新iPad全球开卖:英语新闻
An October Sunrise:英语