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新托福阅读列举题全解析、技巧支招

2010年06月26日  所属:托福  来源:新航道  作者:李传伟

新托福阅读列举题全解析。本文撰写时参考了李传伟已出版的《TOEFL阅读高分对策》和即将出版的《新托福阅读高分对策》。

一、问题形式

列举题,也叫排除列举题,ETS称之为“否定事实信息题”(negative factual information question)。基本形式如下:

According to the passage, which of the following is NOT true of X?

The author’s description of X mentions all of the following EXCEPT

 二、解题技巧

列举题的基本思路是排除,排除与原文相符的选项,与原文相矛盾的选项或原文未提到的选项是正确答案。注意问题中的否定词Not 和EXCEPT。

1.列举题的解题步骤

 1)看题干找关键词

问题中有关键词的,可以根据它定位,然后将四个选项与定位的地方进行比较。如果没有关键词,可以先定位于上一个问题对应的段落之后的段落。

 2)阅读四个选项

题干中没有线索的,可以阅读四个选项,总结其中的共同点进行定位,或者根据各个选项中的关键词一一进行定位。

 3)排除与原文相符的选项

将各个选项与原文比较以后,排除其中符合原文意思的选项,剩下的一个选项,或者与原文相矛盾,或者在原文未提到,就是正确答案。例如,

 The opposite of an opportunist is a competitor. These organisms tend to have big bodies, are long-lived, and spend relatively little effort each year on reproduction. An oak tree is a good example of a competitor. A massive oak claims its ground for 200 years or more, outcompeting all other would-be canopy trees by casting a dense shade and drawing up any free water in the soil. The leaves of an oak tree taste foul because they are rich in tannins, a chemical that renders them distasteful or indigestible to many organisms. The tannins are part of the defense mechanism that is essential to longevity. Although oaks produce thousands of acorns, the investment in a crop of acorns is small compared with the energy spent on building leaves, trunk, and roots. Once an oak tree becomes established, it is likely to survive minor cycles of drought and even fire. A population of oaks is likely to be relatively stable through time, and its survival is likely to depend more on its ability to withstand the pressures of competition or predation than on its ability to take advantage of chance events. It should be noted, however, that the pure opportunist or pure competitor is rare in nature, as most species fall between the extremes of a continuum, exhibiting a blend of some opportunistic and some competitive characteristics.

 All of the following are mentioned in paragraph 7 as contributing to the longevity of an oak tree EXCEPT

the capacity to create shade

leaves containing tannin

the ability to withstand mild droughts and fire

the large number of acorns the tree produces

 本题对应第七段(见上文),其中前三个选项所说的条件(从第四句开始)都对oak tree的长寿有利,而第四个选项所说的“acorns的数量”并未与oak tree的寿命直接联系在一起,因此为正确答案。

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