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2008年职称英语试题真题(卫生类A级)

2008年12月12日  所属:职称英语  来源:新东方在线  作者:职称英语真题

2008年职称英语考试试题真题(卫生类A级)附答案。

2008年度全国职称外语等级考试试卷(卫生类A级)

第1部分:词汇选项(第1~15题,每题1分,共15分)下面每个句子中均有1个词或短语划有底横线, 请为每处划线部分确定1个意义最为接近的选项。

1. With immense relief, I stopped running.
A  Some       B enormous    C little      D extensive 
2. The scientists began to accumulate data.
A collect      B handle       C analyze    D investigate
3. Jack eventually overtook the last truck.
A hit           B passed       C reached    D led
4. Sometimes it is advisable to book hotels in advance.
A possible      B profitable     C easy       D wise
5. The reason for their unusual behavior remains a puzzle.
A fact        B mystery      C statement    D game
6. That guy is really witty.
A smart        B ugly        C honorable       D popular www.enmajor.com
7. The world champion suffered a sensational defeat.
A reasonable    B dramatic    C humiliating      D horrifying
8. It seems that only Mary is eligible for the job.
A prepared      B trained     C qualified        D guided
9. This poem depicts the beautiful scenery of a town in the south.
A praises       B writes      C imitates         D describes
10. The meaning is still obscure.
A vague        B transparent   C alien           D significant
11. Dumped waste might contaminate water supplies.
A destroy       B decrease     C delay           D pollute
12. One theory postulates that the ancient Filipinos came from India and Persia.
A assumes      B expects      C predicts         D considers
13. It is very difficult for a child to adhere to rules.
A remember     B follow       C understand      D learn
14. I hope that I didn’t do anything absurd 1ast night.
A awkward     B strange        C stupid         D awful
15. There should be laws that prohibit smoking around children.
A forbid       B advocate       C inherit         D withdraw

第2部分:阅读判断(第16~22题,每题1分,共7分)
  下面的短文后列出了7个句子,请根据短文的内容对每个句子做出判断:如果该句提供的是正确信息,请选择A;如果该句提供的是错误信息,请选择B;如果该句的信息文中没有提及,请选择C。

Sleep Problems Plague the Older Set

Older Americans often have difficulty getting a good night’s rest. It's a huge quality of life problem, experts say, because contrary to popular belief, seniors require about the same amount of sleep as younger adults.
“Sleep problems and sleep disorders are not an inherent(固有的)part of aging,” said Dr. Harrison G. Bloom, an associate clinical professor of geriatrics(老年病学)and medicine at the Mount Sinai School of Medicine in New York City. “It’s pretty much of a myth that older people need less sleep than younger people.”
Yet, in a study published recently in The American Journal of Medicine, researchers found that more than half of older Americans have problems getting the sleep they need.
Older people tend to have “sleep fragmentation,’’ meaning they wake up more often during the night, said study author Dr. Julie Gammck, an assistant professor of medicine in the Division of Geriatric Medicine at St. Louis University.
They also seem to get less “REM” sleep, the type of sleep during which rapid eye movement occurs, Bloom added.
It’s unclear what role these naturally occurring changes in sleep patterns have on person’s quality of life, Bloom said. “What is important, though, is that older people often have actual sleep disorders and problems with sleep,” he said.
And, experts say, there is usually more than one cause.
“Sleep trouble in older adults is typically associated with acute and chronic illnesses, including specific sleep disorders like sleep apnea(呼吸暂停)and restless leg syndrome that appear with greater frequency in older populations,” said Michael V. Vitiello, a professor of psychiatry and behavioral sciences and associate director of the University of Washington’s Northwest Geriatric Education Center.   
Taking multiple medications, as many older people do, can also lead to fatigue a “hypersomnia,” or being tired all the time, Bloom added.
Another big problem, he noted, IS depression and anxiety. “Those are very commonly associated with sleep problems.”
Despite the prevalence(流行)of sleep difficulties in older adults, many patients aren’t getting the help they need. As a result, problems like insomnia(失眠), restless leg syndrome and sleep apnea are under-diagnosed and undertreated, Bloom said.

16. Sleep problems can seriously affect one’s quality of life www.enmajor.com
  A  Right   B Wrong    C Not mentioned
17. it is true that older people need less sleep than younger people
  A  Right   B Wrong    C Not mentioned
18 Younger people in America seldom complain of sleep disorders.
  A  Right   B Wrong    C Not mentioned
19. The number of older Americans with sleep problems is not small.
  A  Right   B Wrong    C Not mentioned
20. “Sleep fragmentation’’ refers to a marked lack of “REM” sleep
  A  Right   B Wrong    C Not mentioned
21. The causes of sleep problems in older people remain unidentified.
  A  Right   B Wrong    C Not mentioned
22. Actions will soon be taken in America to better help people with sleep problems
  A  Right   B Wrong    C Not mentioned

第3部分:概括大意与完成句子(第23~30题,每题1分,共8分)
  下面的短文后有2项测试任务:(1)第23~26题要求从所给的6个选项中为第1~4段每段选择1个最佳标题;(2)第27~30题要求从所给的6个选项中为每个句子确定1个最佳选项。

Depression and the Elderly

1 We all feel sad at times. However, clinical depression is a serious matter. Clinical depression, sometimes called major depression, is a biologically based brain disorder that affects one’s thoughts, feelings, behavior, and physical health. When people complain that they feel terrible, they have no interest or take no pleasure in things, have trouble sleeping, lack energy, have poor appetite, or cannot concentrate, depression is a definite possibility.
2 Depression in its many forms affects more than 6.5 million of the 35 million Americans who are 65 years or older. Most older people with depression have been suffering from episodes(发作)of the illness during much of their lives。For others, depression has a first onset(起病)in late life—even for those in their 80s and 90s.  Depression in older persons is closely associated with dependency and disability and causes great suffering for the individual and the family,
3 Many older people and their families don’t-recognize the symptoms of depression, aren’t aware that it is a medical illness, and don’t know how it is treated. Others may mistake the symptoms of depression as sighs of dementia(痴呆). Also, many older people think that depression is a character flaw(缺陷)and are worried about being stigmatized(给…带来耻辱). SO they blame themselves for their illness and are too ashamed(羞耻的)to get help, others worry that treatment would be too costly.
4 Older persons with depression rarely seek treatment for the illness. Unrecognized and untreated depression has fatal consequences in terms of both suicide and non-suicide mortality(死亡率). The highest rate of suicide in the US is among older white men. Depression is the single most significant risk factor for suicide in that population. Tragically, many of those people who go on to commit suicide have reached out for help 20%see a doctor the day they die, 40%the week they die, and 70%in the month they die. Yet depression is frequently missed.

23. Paragraph 1     
24. Paragraph 2     
25. Paragraph 3     
26. Paragraph 4     

A How common is depression in later life?
B What is depression?
C What relieves depression in older people?
D Why does depression in older people often go untreated?
E Can depression in older people be treated?
F What are the consequences of untreated depression in older people?

27. Clinical depression is different from     
28. Depression in older people is strongly linked with     
29. Depression is regarded by many older people as     
30. Many older people commit suicide as a result of     

A a character flaw www.enmajor.com
B normal sadness. and grief
C a definite possibility
D dependency and disability
E a significant risk factor
F unrecognized and untreated depression

第4部分:阅读理解(第31~45题,每题3分,共45分)
  下面有3篇短文,每篇短文后有5道题。请根据短文内容,为每题确定1个最佳选项。

第一篇
Centers of the Great European Cities

The centers of the great cities of Europe are meeting places by tradition. People gather there to drink coffee and chat late into the night. A mixture of locals and tourists make for an exciting, metropolitan atmosphere.
Squares, plazas(广场)and arcades(拱廊)form the heart of Europe’s cities.
Venice in Italy has the Piazza San Marco—a beautiful square surrounded by shops, churches, restaurants and cafés. 1n Barcelona, Spain, La Bosqueria is a lively market with hundreds of stalls selling all kinds of goods. London’s Covent Garden is filled with fruit and vegetable stalls by day and musicians, acrobats(杂技演员)and artists by night. The government buildings at the center of many cities often are architecturally impressive. In London, they serve as a beautiful backdrop(背景)to the coffee tables that line the streets and the banks of the Thames.
These vibrant(有活力的)hearts are the product of centuries of evolution, social historian Joel Garreau told US News and World Report recently. “The reason people think Venice is SO great today is you don’t see all the mistakes,” said Garreau. “Those have all been removed.” Most European cities were laid out before the invention of the car. SO bars, restaurants and cafés were near to people’s homes. To day, the focus of many Europeans’ life has moved away from the centers. They live in the suburbs and outskirts, driving to supermarkets to get their supplies. But on a continent where people treasure convention, there are still those who hold onto traditional ways, living and shopping locally. These people, together with tourists, provide the city centers with their reason for existence.
Coffee culture plays a part in keeping these city centers flourishing. This is particularly true of Paris whose citizens are famous enthusiastic conversationalists. This skill is developed over  many hours spent chatting over espressos(浓咖啡)and cigarettes.
Religion also plays a role in developing sociable atmosphere. People in Roman Catholic countries used to visit the Church on an almost daily basis. Entire communities would gather in the same building and then move out to the markets. Cafés and bars in the surrounding streets. An enormous example of this relationship between church and society is the Duomo. The huge marble cathedral in Florence, Italy is surrounded by bakeries and coffee shops, and caters not only to the tourist crowds, but also the local community. 

31. It can be inferred from the first paragraph that each big city in Europe
  A. has many large squares.
  B. has many very magnificent sky—scrapers.
  C. draws tourists in large numbers every year.
  D. has a center where tourists meet their spouses.
32 Which statement is NOT true of Covent Garden?
  A.  It is crowded with people.               
  B.  It is located in London.
  C.  It is filled with stalls.
  D.  It is surrounded by shops, churches, restaurants and caf6s.
33. Why do people think that Venice is SO great?
  A.  Because it is a famous tourist attraction.
  B.  Because you can reach anywhere by boat.
  C.  Because it is well—known for its merchants.
  D.  Because all the mistakes have been removed
34. what are Parisians famous for ?
  A .Their pursuit of independence。
  B. Their enthusiasm for conversation:
  C. Their ability to keep the city flourishing.
  D .Their devotion to developing a multiple culture
35 The writer cites the Duomo in the last paragraph as an example to illustrate that
  A. there is a tight link between church and society.
  B. all churches are magnificent.
  C. old churches are very popular.
  D. high—rise churches are impressive.

第二篇
Mental Retardation(智力迟钝)

Mental retardation is a condition in which people have lower than normal intelligence and are unable to function at the level expected for their age. People with mental retardation are usually born with it, or it develops early in their life. They may also have some difficulty with daily living skills such as learning to read and write and caring for them selves.
Doctors and other professionals determine that a person has mental retardation based on their intelligence and how well they can do everyday activities. Intelligence is the ability to learn and understand. Levels of intelligence are measured by special tests called intelligence tests. The score a person gets on one of these tests gives a numerical(数字的)measure of a person’s intelligence. This is called an intelligence quotient(智商)or IQ.
An average score on an IQ test is about 90 to 110. A person with mental retardation will usually score below 75 on an IQ test.
The IQ test alone does not determine whether someone is mentally retarded. A person must also have trouble with everyday activities such as geeing dressed, eating, washing, or learning basic reading, writing, and arithmetic skills.
Mental retardation is not a disease itself. 1t cannot be cured and it’s not contagious(传染的). This condition can be caused by several things that injure the brain or don’t allow the brain to develop normally. Many times we don’t know why a person has mental retardation.
Sometimes it may be caused by genes. Genes are chemical units found in every cell they carry the instructions telling, cells what to do. Sometimes, children receive abnormal genes from their parents.
A defective gene may also develop spontaneously. Neither parent would have passed on the gene, but the gene changes before the baby develops.
Some other problems that can cause mental retardation also happen before a child is born. It is important for the brain to develop properly if a child is to have normal intelligence. “Planning a pregnancy is the most important decision most of us will make in our lifetime. A healthy lifestyle and good medical care should begin before a woman becomes pregnant and continue throughout the pregnancy,” says Jodi Rucquoi, a genetic counselor from Connecticut. If a woman abuses alcohol or drugs or doesn’t eat well, there is a risk to the developing baby. Also, a premature birth or problems during childbirth can sometimes harm the baby’s developing brain. While premature babies are generally fine, there is a greater chance that they may have mental retardation.
1n some cases. a young child can develop mental retardation after being sick with a serious infection or other illness or after suffering a bad head injury.

36. A child can be taken as mentally retarded if he or she
  A. was born prematurely.
  B. has lower than normal intelligence.
  C. has low intelligence and low daily living skills•
  D. has normal intelligence but difficulties in learning
37. A person of high intelligence will probably score
  A. above 110 on an IQ test.              B. 110 on an IQ test.
  C. 90 on an IQ test.                    D. below 75 on an IQ test.
38. Which Of the following is NOT true of mental retardation?
  A. It is not curable.
  B. Its victims are usually born with it.
  C. Its causes are not fully identified yet.
  D. It can spread among family members
39. Which is NOT a possible cause of mental retardation?
  A. Alcohol or drug abuse.           B. Abnormal genes from the parents,
  C. A well-planned pregnancy.        D. Problems during childbirth.
40 .The word “While” in Line 4 from the bottom can best be replaced by
  A .Unless   B. Because   C. Since    D. Although.

第三篇
Many Older Doctors Plan to Phase out Their Practice

The results of a new survey indicate that 48 percent of physicians between 50 and 65 years of age are planning to reduce or end their clinical practice in the next l to 3 years. The findings also suggest that many older physicians believe that their younger counterparts do not have the work ethic they do.
The survey, which was conducted by Merritt Hawkins&Associates, a Texas-based physician search and consulting firm, suggests that many older physicians are simply unhappy with the changes that have taken place in medicine over the Years.
“When Baby Boom doctors entered medicine they had control over how they practiced and the fee they charged. But the rules changed on them in mid-stream and now many are looking for a ticket out,” Mark Smith, executive vice president of Merritt Hawkins&Associates, said in a statement. 
 “Our study is the only one I am aware of that examines the career plans of physicians in the 50-To-65 age group.” This age group represents more than one-third of all physicians in the U. S. If they stop working in the coming years, it will have a “significant impact” on the overall supply of physicians, Smith told Reuters Health.
The results of the survey, which included 1,170 respondents(调查对象), show that 24 percent Of older physicians are planning to leave clinical practice all together In the next 1 to 3 years. Specifically, 1 4 percent said they were planning on retiring, 7 percent said they were looking for a medical job a non-patient care setting, and 3 Percent said they were seeking a job in a non-medical field.
For those physicians not leaving clinical practice, many said they would make changes to reduce the number of patients they treat. For instance, 12 percent said they would begin working part-time, 8 percent said they planned to stop taking new patients or markedly reduce their patient load, and 4 percent expressed a desire to work on a temporary basis.
When asked about the work ethic of physicians entering practice today, 68 percent of the respondents said that these younger doctors are not as dedicated or as hard working as physicians who entered practice 20 t0 30 years ago.
Fifty-seven percent of older physicians said they would not recommend medicine as a career to their own children. Similarly, 44 percent said they would not select medicine as a career if they were starting out today.  
“The most ominous(不祥的)finding is that about one half of physicians surveyed plant to either abandon patient care in the next 1 to 3 years, or significantly reduce the number of patients they see,” Smith said. “The U. S. already is facing a widespread shortage of physicians, Should older, ‘workhorse’ physicians choose to opt out of patient care access to medical services will be further restricted.”

41. Which is NOT true of physicians in the 50-to-65 age group in the U. S. ?
  A. They are mostly baby boomers.
  B. They have nothing to complain about.
  C. Many of them plan to gradually stop their practice.
  D. They account for over one-third of all physicians in the country.
42. The survey was focused on
  A. the living conditions of older physicians in the U. S.
  B. the career plans of older physicians in the U. S.
  C. the retirement plans of older physicians in the U. S.
  D. the achievements of older physicians in the U, S.
43. Many older physicians in the U. S. view the work ethic of their younger counterparts
  A. with appreciation          B. with disapproval.
  C. with jealous              D. with indifference.
44. In the eyes of many older physicians, medicine
 A. comes first in their choice of a career for their children
 B. remains their lifelong pursuit.
 C. is not as good a career as it used to be.
 D. is more demanding than it used to be.
45 lf many older physicians stop working in the coming years, Americans will have
 A. even less access to medical services.
 B. even better patient care.
 C. a shortage of younger physicians.    
 D. more job opportunities.

第5部分:补全短文(第46~50题,每题2分,共10分)下面的短文有5处空白,短文后有6个句子,其中5个取自短文,请根据短文内容将其分别放回原有位置,以恢复文章原貌。

What’s Lacking in “sicko”?

When it comes to economic decision, there are always trade-offs(取舍). Gain one thing and you lose something else -------------(46)
The central argument of Michael Moore’s movie “Sicko”--that the cure to the nation’s health care problems is a single-payer system--is hardly novel and is certainly worth consideration, whether or not you agree with it. But in comparing the American system with single-payer plans of other countries—Britain, France, Canada and Cuba--Mr. Moore left Out the trade-offs, characterizing those countries as health care paradises------------(47)
Kurt Loder, the film critic who is best known as the anchor(主持人)of “MTV News,” wrote a critique(批评)of the film for MTV’s website. “Sicko,” he said, “does a real service” in portraying(描绘)victims of American insurance companies--like the people who died because their only treatment options were considered “experimental” and therefore not covered--------------(48)
when “governments attempt to regulate the balance between a limited supply if health care and an unlimited demand for it, they’re inevitably forced to ration treatment,” Mr. Loder asserted----------------(49)Mr. Loder cited the short film “Dead Meat,” which presents anecdotes(轶事)of failure in the Canadian single’payer system in its One-sidedness, “Dead Meat” might have made for a nice double feature with “Sicko,” and left movie-goers with a more complete understanding of the complications of deciding on a health care system -------------------(50)
This all makes an otherwise ‘‘emotionally compelling film not necessarily an intellectually satisfying one,” wrote Darren Barefoot, a Canadian blogger(博客作者).

A Mr. Moore also decided to ignore problems in other countries, like France’s high taxes and Britain’s cash—short hospitals
B But the film as a whole, he concluded, is “breathtakingly meretricious(似是而非的),” in large part because of its characterizations of other countries’health care Systems
C The problems have been noticed—and criticism is coming not just from Mr. Moore’s detractors(诋毁者)
D He ticked off a number of negative statistics to counter the positive ones offered by Mr. Moore
E Health care is the prevention, treatment, and management of illness
F This is particularly true in health care, a market in which scarce(稀罕的)goods are ridiculously expensive, but needed by everybody

第6部分:完形填空(第51~65题,每题1分,共1 5分)下面的短文有15处空白, 请根据短文内容为每处空白确定1个最佳选项。

Many Children’s Deaths Preventable: WHO

Over five million children die each year from disease, infections and accidents Related-------------- (51) their environment although many of these deaths are largely preventable, says the World Health Organization.
On Monday, the WHO asked governments and citizens around the world to take action to create healthy-------------- (52) for children as it celebrated World Health Day.
 “The biggest threats to children’s health lurk(潜藏)in the very-----------(53)that should be safest—home, school and community, said Dr. Gro Harlem Brundtland director-general of the WHO at the day’s launch in New Delhi, India.
“Every child has the right to----------- (54) up in a healthy home school and community. The future development of our children——and of their world—depends on ---------- (55) enjoying good health now. We have their future in our---------- (56) Now we must work more effectively together to----------- (57) the risks from the environment which our children face,” Brundtland said.
This year’s theme, “Healthy Environments for Children” focuses on the many dangers ---------- (58) by children in and around the places where they live and play.
These include inadequate access to safe ---------- (59)water and sanitation(卫生设备), insect borne diseases, air pollution, chemical hazards and injuries from traffic, falls, burns and drownings.
Communities around the world organized events to promote awareness of children’s health issues ---------- (60)included drawing contests for schoolchildren in Vietnam street plays in India, puppet(木偶)shows in Namibia and professional lectures for policy makers in Germany and elsewhere.
Activities also took---------- (61) in cities across Canada on Monday, including Calgary, Montreal, Halifax and Ottawa.
Although children under five represent only 1 0 per cent of the world’s population, they bear 40 per cent of the global disease---------- (62), says the WHO. And as much as one-third of the total burden of disease may be caused by environmental ---------- (63)
World Health Day has been celebrated on April 7th ---------- (64)1 950. Each year the WHO chooses a theme to highlight areas of particular concern. Last year’s ---------- (65), Move for Health focuses on promoting physical activity as part of healthy living.

51. A by              B to     C on        D at
52. A. environments    B foods     C colors     D drinks
53. A. laces           B chances   C times      D posts
54. A stay            B pick       C grow      D get
55. A our            B your      C his        D their
56. A hands          B arms      C hopes      D happiness
57. A run            B reduce    C take        D regard
58. A accepted        B stated     C reached    D faced
59. A drinking        B spraying   C splashing   D working
60. A that            B what      C which     D some
61. A way            B order     C route      D place
62. A burden          B penalty    C suffering   D difficulty
63. A reasons         B courses   C facts      D factors
64. A after            B since    C in         D from
65. A concern         B area     C theme      D celebration


2008职称英语考试卫生类A级答案:

第一部分 词汇选项题

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
B A B D B A B C D A D A B C A

第二部分 阅读判断

16 17 18 19 20 21 22
A A C A B B C

第三部分 概括大意与完成句子

23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
B A D F B D A F

第四部分 阅读理解

第一篇

31 32 33 34 35
C D D B A

第二篇

36 37 38 39 40
C A C C D

第三篇

41 42 43 44 45
C B B C A

第五部分 补全短文

46 47 48 49 50
F C B D A

第六部分 完型填空

51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65
B A A C D A B D A C D A D B C


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