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08年职称英语真题(理工类A级)

2008年12月12日  所属:职称英语  来源:新东方在线  作者:职称英语真题

08年职称英语真题理工类、A级。

2008年度全国职称外语等级考试试卷 理工类A级

第1部分:词汇选项(第1~15题,每题1分,共15分)
下面每个句子中均有1个词或短语划有底横线, 请为每处划线部分确定1个惫义最为接近的选项。

1 With immense relief, stopped running.
A enormous   B some    C little    D extensive
2 The scientists began to accumulate data.
A handle     B collect   C analyze   D investigate
3 Jack eventually overtook the last truck.
A passed     B hit     C reached   D led
4 Sometimes it is advisable to book hotels in advance.
A possible     B profitable C wise    D easy
5 The reason for their unusual behavior remains a puzzle.
A mystery     B fact    C statement D game
6 That guy is really witty.
A ugly       B smart    C honorable D popular
7 The world champion suffered a sensational defeat.
A dramatic     B reasonable C humiliating D horrifying
8 It seems that only Mary is eligible for the job.
A prepared     B trained    C guided    D qualified
9 This poem depicts the beautiful scenery of a town in the South
A praises      B writes    C describes D imitates
10 The meaning is still obscure.
A transparent    B vague    C alien    D significant
11 Dumped waste might contaminate water supplies.
A destroy      B decrease   C pollute   D delay
12 One theory postulates that the ancient Filipinos came from India and Persia.
A expects      B assumes    C predicts   D considers
13 It is very difficult for a child to adhere to rules.
A follow       B remember   C understand D learn
14 I hope that I didn’t do anything absurd last night.
A awkward      B strange     C awful    D stupid
15 There should be laws that prohibit smoking around children.
A advocate      B forbid     C inherit    D withdraw

第2部分:阅读判断(第16~22题,每题1分,共7分)
  下面的短文后列出了7个句子,请根据短文的内容对每个句子做出判断:如果该句提供的是正确信息,请选择A;如果该句提供的是错误信息,请选择B;如果该句的信息文中没有提及,请选择C。

Green Roof Research

The concept of green roofs is basically about growing plants on roofs, thus helping to replace the green footprint that had been destroyed due to the construction of the building. Green roofs are the most prevalent(流行)in Germany, which is widely regarded as the leader in green roof research.
The green roofs that are used these days can be classified as "extensive" and “intensive” systems. Extensive green roofs use mosses, grasses and herbs, which are tolerant to droughts. These plants do not need much maintenance, can be grown in a layer of substrate(土层)that can be as shallow as 1.5 inches, and generally are inaccessible to the public. In contrast, a wide range of species of plants are grown on intensive green roofs, such as shrubs(灌木)and even trees, which require deeper substrate layers, and are usually grown on flat roofs. They need intensive maintenance, and are usually areas that resemble parks which are accessible to people.
There are several benefits of adopting green roof technologies. Apart from the obvious psychological and aesthetic(暮学的)benefits of garden-like environments surrounding you, some of the common economic and ecological benefits are: a reduction in the consumption of energy;air and water purification;recovering green spaces: and the mitigation(缓解)of the heat island effect in urban areas.
The green roof research that is currently ongoing is focused on evaluating the species of plants that are suitable to be grown on roofs, the methods of propagation(繁殖)as well as establishment, nutrient(养料)and water requirement, substrates, and the quantity and quality of water runoff. The evaluation criteria of plant species are: at what rate they can be established: their capacity to withstand invasive weeds: tolerance of cold and heat: tolerance of drought conditions: capacity of persistence and survival.
A number of experiments are being conducted on roof platform simulations at various research centers. These sites are generally outfitted with equipment, which are used to measure temperatures at different depths of the growing substrates, and the rate and volume of the runoff of stormwaters from each of the platforms.
Green roof technology is representative of a completely new market for landscape contractors, and all roofs that currently exist and the future ones to be constructed are the potential market—a market that is too huge to be overlooked.

16. It is estimated that around 10 percent of the flat roofs in Germany are green
 A Right            B Wrong     C Not mentioned
17. German people prefer extensive green roof systems to intensive ones
 A Right            B Wrong     C Not mentioned
18. Small plants like grasses and herbs are grown widely on intensive green roofs.
 A Right            B Wrong     C Not mentioned
19. Green roof is an ecologically sound strategy of spreading green in urban areas
 A Right            B Wrong     C Not mentioned
20. One of the benefits of green roofs is the reduction of the heat island effect in cities
 A Right            B Wrong     C Not mentioned
21. One focus in the green roof research is the evaluation of suitable plant species
 A Right            B Wrong     C Not mentioned
22. Although green roof technology can create a garden—like environment, its potential market is rather small.
 A Right            B Wrong     C Not mentioned

第3部分:概括大意与完成句子(第23~30题,每题1分,共8分)
  下面的短文后有2项测试任务:(1)第23~26题要求从所给的6个选项中为第2~5段每段选择1个最佳标题:(2)第27~30题要求从所给的6个选项中为每个句子确定1个最佳选项。
The Supercomputer Network

1 Recently, ten laboratories run by governments in different parts of the world have become linked. Their computers have been connected so they can “talk” to each other. This may not seem very dramatic news, but it is the beginning of a development that will increase the power of the Internet tremendously.
2 The Internet is an interconnected(互联)system of networks that connects computers round the world and facilitates the transmission and exchange of information. The way that you use the Internet is by accessing this network. This depends on the power that your system allows you to use. The power of your computer is responsible for how fast you can download(下载)files, how much data you can store, etc. If your computer is old and slow, accessing the information can be very difficult.
3 The new development in information technology has been called “the grid” (网格技术), and it will be a network of computers that are linked together. The “grid” will work in a different way from the Internet, enabling you to get the power of the biggest computers in the world on your computer. Accessing the information will no longer depend on the power of your computer. The idea is that while you access information, you will also have access to the power of the bigger computer stations.
4 One advantage of this revolutionary idea is that geographical location will become irrelevant. The “grid” will decide which are the best parts of a worldwide network to do the job you want. This means that you may be accessing a computer In Japan to solve a problem in Alaska.
5 The “grid” can be compared to having an efficient personal assistant. You can give your assistant a task and“he”will do it for you. The assistant will do the preliminary research, collect the data, compare them and decide on the best course of action by accessing any of the computer centres in the “grid” that happen to have the relevant information. All you have to do is assign the task, sit back and wait.
6  At present, possible applications of the“grid”in scientific research are being  explored. While it has taken about fifteen years for Internet use to become widespread, experts believe that the “grid” could be up and running for private individuals far more quickly. Scientists working on“grid”projects are convinced that it will be as widely used as the web in the next ten years.

23 Paragraph 2_________

24 Paragraph 3_________

25 Paragraph 4_________

26 Paragraph 5_________


27 Traditionally the power of your computer determines how fast you can access__________.
28 The “grid’’ will enable you to get on your computer the power of _________ in the world.
29 The “grid” would be like __________, who can perform your tasks efficiently.
30 It is believed that the widespread use of the “grid’’ will become possible in the next________.

第4部分:阅读理解(第31-45题, 每题3分, 共45分)
  下面有3篇短文, 每篇短文后有5道题。请根据短文内容, 为每题确定1个最佳选项。

第一篇
Centers of the Great European Cities

The centers of the great cities of Europe are meeting places by tradition people gather there to drink coffee and chat late into the night. A mixture of locals and tourists make for an exciting, metropolitan atmosphere.
Squares, plazas(广场)and arcades(拱廊)form the heart of Europe’s cities
Venice in Italy has the Piazza San Marco—a beautiful square surrounded by snacks, churches, restaurants and cafés. In Barcelona, Spain, La Bosqueria is a lively market with hundreds of stalls selling all kinds of goods. London’s Covent Garden IS filled with fruit and vegetable stalls by day and musicians, acrobats(杂技演员)nd artists by night. The government buildings at the center of many cities often are architecturally impressive• In London, the serve as a beautiful backdrop(背景)to the coffee tables that line the streets and the banks of the Thames. . .
These vibrant(有活力的)hearts are the product of centuries of evolution, social historian Joel Garreau told US News and World Report recently. “The reason people think Venice is so great today is you don’t see all the mistakes,” said Garreau. “those have all been removed.” Most European cities were laid out before the invention of the car, so bars, restaurants and cafés were near to people homes. Today the focus of many Europeans, life has moved away from the centers. They live in the suburbs and Outskirts, driving to supermarkets to get their supplies. But on a continent where people treasure convention, there are still those who hold onto traditional ways, ling and shopping locally. These people, together with tourists, provide the city centers with their reason for existence. 
Coffee culture plays a part in keeping these city centers flourishing this is particularly true of Paris whose citizens are famous enthusiastic conversationalists. This skill is developed over many hours spent chatting over espressos(浓咖啡)and cigarettes.
Religion also plays a role in developing sociable atmosphere. People in Roman Catholic countries used to visit the Church on an almost daily basis. Entire communities would gather in the same building and then move out to the markets, cafes and bars in the surrounding streets. An enormous example of this relationship between church and society is the Duomo. The huge marble cathedral in Florence, Italy is surrounded by bakeries and coffee shops, and caters not only to the tourist crowds, but also the local community

31. It can be inferred from the first paragraph that each big city in Europe
  A. has many large squares.
  A. B. has many very magnificent sky-scrapers.
  C. has a center where tourists meet their spouses.
  D. draws tourists in large numbers every year.
32. Which statement is NOT true of Covent Garden?
  A. It is crowded with people.
  B. It is located in London.
   C. It is surrounded by shops, churches, restaurants and cafes
   D. It is filled with stalls.
33. Why do people think that Venice is so great?
   A. Because it is a famous tourist attraction.
   B. Because you can reach anywhere by boat.
   C. Because all the mistakes have been removed.
   D. Because it is well-known for its merchants.
34. What are Parisians famous for?
   A. Their enthusiasm for conversation.
   B. Their pursuit of independence.
   C. Their ability to keep the city flourishing.
   D. Their devotion to developing a multiple culture.
35. The writer cites the Duomo in the last paragraph as an example to illustrate that
   A. all churches are magnificent.
   B. there is a tight link between church and society.
   C. old churches are very popular.
   D. high-rise churches are impressive.

第二篇
Real-World Robots

When you think Of a robot, do you imagine a shiny ,metallic device having the same general shape as a human being, performing humanlike functions, and responding to your questions in a monotone(单调的)voice accentuated(强调)by high-pitched tones and beeps This is the way many of US imagine a robot, but in the real world a robot is not humanoid at all. Instead, a robot often is a voiceless box-shaped machine that efficiently carries out repetitive or dangerous functions usually performed by humans. Today’s robot is more than an automatic machine that performs one task again and again. A modern robot is programmed with varying degrees of artificial intelligence, that is, a robot contains a computer program that tells it how to perform tasks associated with human intelligence, such as reasoning, drawing conclusions, and learning from past.
A robot does not possess a human shape for the simple reason that a two-legged robot has great difficulty remaining balanced. A robot does, however, move from place to place on wheels and axles(轮轴)that roll and rotate. A robot even has limbs that turn round and move in combination with joints and motors. To find its way in its surroundings, a robot utilizes various built -in sensors. Antennae attached to the robot's base detect anything they bump into. If the robot starts to shake as it moves on an incline, a gyroscope(陀螺仪)inside it senses the vertical differential. To determine its distance from an object and how quickly it will reach the object, the robot bounces beams of laser. light and ultrasonic sound waves off obstructions(障碍物)in its path. These and other sensors constantly feed information to the computer, which then analyzes the information and corrects or adjusts the robot’s actions. As science and technology advance the robot too will progress in its functions and use of artificial intelligence programs.

36 The writer begins the passage by comparing
 A a real-life robot with a fictional robot.
 B the shape of a human being with a box.
 C an imaginary machine with a human.
 D a robot with a computer program.
37 The word “humanoid” in Paragraph 1 means
 A lacking human feelings.
 B lacking human characteristics.
 C having a human form and characteristics
 D lacking human intelligence.
38 According to the first paragraph, artificial intelligence is
 A the unnatural way in which robots move.
 B a voiceless, box—shaped machine that performs repetitive tasks
 C a computer program that imitates human intellectual processes
 D a sensor that detects troubles in a robot.
39 The last paragraph suggests that future robots will
 A surpass human beings in intelligence.
 B be more humanlike in behavior and action.
 C use a laser to transmit information.
 D will perform very complicated household jobs.
40 Another good title for this passage would be
 A Robots: Taking the Place of Humans.
 B Artificial Intelligence Programs.
 C Modern-Day Sensors.
 D Today’ S Robots and How They Function


第三篇
Why Humans Walk on Two Legs

A team of scientists that studied chimpanzees(黑猩猩)trained to use treadmills (跑步机) has gathered new evidence suggesting that our earliest apelike ancestors started walking on two legs because it required less energy than getting around on all fours.
Michael Sockol, researcher of UC Davis, worked for two years to find an animal trainer willing to coax (劝诱) adult chimps to walk on two legs and to walk on all fours.
The five chimps also wore face masks used to help the researchers measure oxygen consumption. While the chimps worked out, the scientists collected data that allowed them to calculate which method of locomotion(移动) used less energy and why. The team gathered the same information for four adult humans walking on a treadmill.
The researchers found that human walking used about 75 percent less energy and burned 75 percent fewer calories than quadrupedal and bipedal walking in chimpanzees. They also found that for some but not all of the chimps, walking on two legs was no more costly than on all fours.
"We were prepared to find that all of the chimps used more energy walking on two legs-but that finding wouldn't have been as interesting, Sockol said.” What we found was much more telling. For three chimps, bipedalism was more expensive, but for the other two chimps, this wasn't the case. One spent about the same energy walking on two legs as on all fours. The other used less energy walking upright." These two chimps had different gaits (步法) and anatomy (解剖) than 'their quadrupedal peers.
Taken together, the findings provide support for the hypothesis that anatomical (解剖学的) differences affecting gait existed among our earliest apelike ancestors, and that these differences provided the genetic variation which natural selection could act on when changes in the environment gave bipeds an advantage over quadrupeds.
Fossil and molecular evidence suggests the earliest ancestors of the human family  lived in forested areas in equatorial Africa in the late Miocene era (中世纪) some 8 to 10 million years ago, when changes in climate may have increased the distance between food patches. That would have forced our earliest ancestors to travel longer distances on the ground and favored those who could cover more ground using less energy.
 "This isn't the complete answer," Sockol said. "But it's a good piece of a puzzle humans have always wondered about: How and why did we become human? And why do we alone walk on two legs?"

41. Michael Sockol and his team were interested in
   A. where humans came from.
   B. how chimpanzees could be trained to use treadmills.
   C. when our earliest ancestors began to live in forested areas
   D. why our apelike ancestors came to walk on two legs.
42. The phrase "worked out' in paragraph 3 could be replaced by
   A. calculated.            B. exercised.
   C. understood.           D. planned.
43. What did the researchers find in the experiment?
   A. One chimp used about the same energy in walking on two legs as on all fours
   B. Human walking used more energy than bipedal walking in chimps.
   C. Two chimps used more energy walking on two legs.
   D. Three chimps used less energy walking on two legs.
44. The word "quadrupeds" in paragraph 6 is a technical word for
   A. creatures with four feet.       B. creatures with two feet.
   C. creatures with six feet.       D. creatures with eight feet.
45. What does fossil and molecular evidence tell us about our earliest ancestors?
   A. They experienced more climate changes than we do today.
   B. They were forced to travel between food patches.
   C. They could cover more ground with less energy.
   D. They were much taller than modern man.

第5部分:补全短文(第46~50题, 每题2分, 共10分) 
  下面的短文有5处空白,短文后有6个句子,其中5个取自短文,请根据短文内容将其分别放回原有位置,以恢复文章原貌。

What, S Lacking in“Sicko”?

When it comes to economic decisions, there are always trade-offs(取舍). Gain one thing and you lose something else. _________(46)
The central argument of Michael Moore’s movie “Sicko”--that the cure to the nation’s health care problems is a single-payer system--is hardly novel and is certainly worth consideration, whether or not you agree with it. But in comparing the American system with single-payer plans of other countries—Britain, France, Canada and Cuba Mr. Moore left out the trade-offs, characterizing those countries as health care paradises. ___________(47) Kurt Loder, the film critic who is best known as the anchor(主持人)of “MTV News”, wrote a critique(批评)of the film for MTV’s website. “Sicko,” he said, “does a real service” in portraying(描绘)victims of American insurance companies’--like the people, who died because their only treatment options were considered “experimental” and therefore not covered. _______(48)
When" governments attempt to regulate the balance between a limited supply of health care and an unlimited demand for it, they’re inevitably forced to ration treatment.
Mr. Loder asserted. ________(49)Mr. Loder cited the short film “Dead Meat,” which presents anecdotes(轶事)of failure In the Canadian single-payer system in its one-sidedness, “Dead Meat”, might have made for a nice double feature with “Sicko,” and left movie-goers with a more complete understanding Of the complications of deciding on a health care system _____________(50)
This all makes an otherwise “emotionally compelling film not necessarily an intellectually satisfying one,” wrote Darren Barefoot, a Canadian blogger. (博客作者).

  A This is particularly true in health care, a market in which scarce(稀罕的)goods are ridiculously expensive, but needed by everybody
  B Mr. Moore also decided to ignore problems in other countries, like France’s high taxes and Britain’ S cash—short hospitals
  C But the film as a whole, he concluded, is “breathtakingly meretricious(似是而非的),” in large part because of its characterizations of other countries’ health care systems.
  D The problems have been noticed—and criticism is coming not just from Mr. Moore’s detractors(诋毁者).
  E He ticked off a number of negative statistics to counter the positive ones offered by Mr. Moore
  F Health care is the prevention, treatment, and management of illness

第6部分:完形填空(第51~65题,每题1分,共15分)
  下面的短文有15处空白,请根据短文内容为每处空白确定1个最佳选项。

Debate over the Use of Renewable Energy

Amusable of Rockefeller University in New York, US says the key renewable(可再生的) energy sources, including sun, wind and bibfuls, would all require vast amounts of land if developed up to large scale production--unlike nuclear power. That land would be far better________(51)alone, he says. Renewable look_______ (52) when they are quite small. But if we start producing renewable energy on a large________(53), the fallout(结果)is going to be horrible.
Amusable draws his conclusions by analyzing the amount of energy that renewable natural gas and nuclei(原子核)can________(54)in terms of power per square meter of land used. Moreover, he claims that_________(55)renewable energy use increases this measure of efficiency wail decrease as the best land for wind, bibfuls, and solar power gets used up.
Solar power is much more__________ (56) than bibful in used but it would still ________(57)150 square kilometers terms of the area of land of photovoltaic(光电的)cells to match the energy production of the 1000 MW nuclear plant. In another example, he says__________ (58)the 2005 US electricity demand via wind need 780,000 square kilometers, an area the__________(59)of Texas power alone would. However, several experts are highly critical of Amusable’s ________(60). John Turner of the US government’s National Renewable Energy Laboratory says that even if the US got all of its_______ (61) from solar energy, it would still need less than half the amount of land that has been _________(62) highways. Further, it need not ________(63)up additional land. The US could get a quarter of its energy just from covering rooftops of existing buildings, he says
According to Turner, the same “dual use” also_________(64) to wind power footprint for wind is only 5%of the land that it ___________(65) . Farmers can still farm the land that the turbines are on. Turner says looking solely at land use is an over-simplification of the issue.

51. A left     B owned   C held     D bought
52. A fresh    B costly    C attractive   D dirty
53. A number   B scale    C part     D extent
54. A reduce    B increase   C consume   D produce.
55. A since    B as     C because    D until
56. A effective   B important C special    D efficient
57. A require   B show    C collect    D discover
58. A making   B Keeping   C meeting    D creating
59. A form    B size     C region    D scope
60. A conclusions B decisions  C solutions   D modifications
61. A force    B volume   C control    D power
62. A to     B in      C for     D on
63. A give    B take     C set      D turn
64. A applies   B adapts    C relates    D appeals
65. A touches   B faces     C covers    D holds


2008年度全国职称外语等级考试答案:

第一部分 词汇选项题

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
A B A C A B A D C B C B A D B

第二部分 阅读判断

16 17 18 19 20 21 22
C C B A A A B

第三部分 概括大意与完成句子

23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
E A F B E B F D

第四部分 阅读理解

第一篇 Centers of the great European cities

31 32 33 34 35
D C C A B

第二篇 Real-world robots

36 37 38 39 40
A C C B D

第三篇 Why humans walk on two legs

41 42 43 44 45
D B A A C

第五部分 补全短文

46 47 48 49 50
A D C E B

第六部分 完型填空

51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65
A C B D B D A C B A D C B A C


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