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新视野大学英语读写教程1 Unit 5

2010年05月22日  所属:大学英语  来源:互联网  作者:新视野大学英语读写教程1

新视野大学英语读写教程1第一册Unit5:The Battle Against AIDS;The Last Dive at the Olympics。

Unit 5


Section A

Pre-reading Activities

First Listening
    Having ideas about an essay before you read it is an important reading skill. Please listen to a short piece of recording about AIDS.

Second Listening
    Listen to the tape again. Then answer the following questions to the best of your ability.
    1. What is the name of the disease that appeared more than 20 years ago?
    2. What war does this passage describe?
    3. What must each of us learn to do?

The Battle Against AIDS

    Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) was diagnosed in the United States in the late 1970s. Since then, AIDS has killed more than 204,000 Americans — half in the past few years alone. Another 185,000 of the one million infected with the HIV virus are also expected to die.
    Nearly half of those diagnosed with the virus are blacks and Latinos. Women and youth in rural Southern communities now constitute the fastest growing segment of people with AIDS.
    Despite such alarming numbers, the federal and state governments have been slow in implementing programs to stop the spread of AIDS. In place of government inactivity, a number of local organizations have emerged.
    One organization, the South Carolina AIDS Education Network, formed in 1985 to combat the growing number of AIDS cases. Like many local organizations, this organization suffers from a lack of money, forcing it to use its resources creatively. To reach more people in the community, some AIDS educational programs operate out of a beauty shop.
    The owner hands out AIDS information to all her clients when they enter the shop and shows videos on AIDS prevention while they wait for their hair to dry. She also keeps books and other publications around so customers can read them while waiting for their appointments. It's amazing how many people she has educated on the job.
    Recently, the network began helping hair stylists throughout the Southeast set up similar programs in their shops. They are also valuable resources in spreading information to their schools, community groups, and churches.
    The organization has developed several techniques useful to other groups doing similar work. While no one way of winning the war against AIDS exists, the network shares these lessons learned in its battle against AIDS:
    Speak to your community in a way they can hear. Many communities have a low literacy rate, making impossible passing out AIDS literature and expecting people to read it. To solve this problem, ask people in the community who can draw well to create low-literacy AIDS education publications.
    These books use simple, hand-drawn pictures of "sad faces" and "happy faces" to illustrate ways people can prevent AIDS. They also show people who look like those we need to educate, since people can relate more when they see familiar faces and language they can understand. As a result, such books actually have more effect in the communities where they are used than government publications, which cost thousands of dollars more to produce.
    Train teenagers to educate their peers. Because AIDS is spreading fastest among teenagers in the rural South, the stylists have established an "AIDS Busters" program which trains youth from 8 to 26 to go into the community and teach "AIDS 101" to their peers. They make it simple and explain the risk of catching AIDS to friends their own age much better than an adult can. They also play a vital role in helping parents understand the types of peer pressure their children experience.
    Redefine "at risk" to include women from different backgrounds and marriage status. One woman's doctor told her she was not at risk for AIDS because she was married and didn't use drugs. Such misinformation plagues the medical establishment. According to the Centers for Disease Control, women will soon make up 80 percent of those diagnosed with HIV.
    The stylists also emphasize that everyone is at risk and that all of us have a right to protect ourselves — regardless of marriage status.
    These lessons are not the only solutions to the crisis but until there is a cure for AIDS, education represents the only safe measure to guard against the virus.
    Like no other plague before, the AIDS epidemic threatens to wipe out an entire generation and leave another without parents. We must not let cultural, racial, or social barriers distract us from the job that must be done. Nor can we let political inefficiency stop us from our task. This is an undeclared war that everyone must sign up for in order for us to win. We simply cannot let people continue to die because we don't feel comfortable talking about AIDS. Everyone must become an educator and learn to live.

    Words: 700

NEW WORDS

acquire
vt.  get by one's own work, skill, etc. 获得;学到

▲immune
a.   1. unable to be diseased or hurt because of special powers in oneself 免疫的
2. protected from 免除的

▲deficiency
n.   the state of having none or not enough of 不足,缺乏;缺点,缺陷

◆syndrome
n.   a set of qualities, happenings, methods, etc., common to a general condition (具有共性的性质,事件,症状等的)集合

▲diagnose
vt.  discover the nature of (a disease) 诊断;判断

infect
vt.  1. put disease into the body of (someone) 感染
2. affect; influence 影响

virus
n.   a living thing which can cause a spreading disease in the body, or in plants 病毒

rural
a.   of or like the countryside 农村的

constitute
vt.  make up; form 组成

segment
n.   any of the parts into which something may be divided 部分

alarm
n.   sudden fear and worry; a warning of danger 惊慌;警报
vt. cause sudden fear or worry; 使惊恐,使担心

federal
a.   联邦的,联邦制的

implement
vt.  carry out or put into practice 实施,执行

organization (英organisation)
n.   1. a group of people with a special purpose 组织
2. the adjusting or planning of parts so as to form an effective whole 组织,安排

emerge
vi.  come or appear 出现

network
n.   a large set of lines, wires, etc., that cross or meet one another 网络

combat
vt.  fight or struggle against 斗争
n.   a fight or battle 斗争

resource
n.   (usu. pl.) a possession (esp. of a country) in the form of wealth or goods 资源

creative
a.   producing new and fresh ideas and things 创造性的;有创造力的

creatively
ad.  创造性地;有创造力地

client
n.   1. a person who pays a business person, esp. a lawyer for help and advice 当事人
2. a customer 顾客

video
n.   录像,录像机

publication
n.   1.[U] the act of making sth. known to the public; the offering of sth. printed for sale 公布,发表;出版,发行
2.[C] sth. printed 出版物

educate
v.   teach; train the nature of 教育

educational
a.   of education 教育的

educator
n.   a person who educates 教育工作者;教育家

recently
ad.  not long ago 最近

southeast
n.   the point that is halfway between south and east 东南

▲literacy
n.   the state of being able to read and/or write 文化;识字

low-literacy
n.   低文化水平

literature
n.   1. written works which are of artistic value 文学
2. printed material giving information 资料

solve
vt.  find an answer to or a way of dealing with 解决,解答

solution
n.   (to) an answer to a problem 解决,解答

create
vt.  cause sth. to happen or exist 创造

illustrate
vt.  show the meaning of (sth.) by giving related pictures or examples 说明

relate
vt.  1. tell (a story) 讲述
2. see or show a joining between 将……联系起来

establish
vt.  set up (esp. a school, an organization, etc.) 建立,创办

establishment
n.   1. a business or an organization 机构,企业
2. the act of setting up 建立,确立;确定

■buster
n.   sth. or sb. that fights or triumphs over the actual wrong or negative activity 克星

risk
n.   a danger 危险,风险
vt.  place in danger; take the chance of losing 冒着……的危险

adult
n.   a fully grown person or animal 成年(人或动物)

pressure
n.   the conditions of work, a way of living, etc. which cause worry, stress and difficulty 压力

define
vt.  give the meaning of; describe exactly 下定义;描述

redefine
vt.  consider sth. in a new way 重新说明

background
n.   a person's family, experience, and education 出身背景,经历;背景资料

▲plague
vt.  annoy by repeated action 缠绕,烦扰
n.   瘟疫,鼠疫;灾难,祸患

emphasize (英emphasise)
vt.  lay stress on 强调

regardless
a.   whatever may happen; (of) not influenced by 无论如何

crisis
n.   moment of great danger or difficulty 危机

represent
vt.  1. show; be a sign of; stand for 表示,表明
2. act or speak officially for(another person or people) 作为……的代表(或代理)

▲epidemic
n.   a widely or rapidly spreading disease; the spread of a disease that infects others 流行病;传染病的蔓延

threaten
v.   express or be a warning that one is going to hurt, punish , etc. 扬言;威胁

racial
a.   connected with race 种族的

efficiency
n.   the quality of being able to do a task successfully, without wasting time or energy 效率

inefficiency
n.   the quality of being unable to do a task successfully 效率低下,无效

PHRASES AND EXPRESSIONS

be infected with
have or carry (a disease) 感染(疾病)

in place of
instead of 代替

suffer from
experience (sth. unpleasant, e.g. an illness) 受……之苦,患(某种疾病)

pass out
1. give to each person in a group 分发
2. faint 晕倒

as a result
therefore 因此,结果

at risk
in danger 有危险,有风险

regardless of
not influenced by 不顾,不管

the solution to
the answer to ……的解答;解决(解答)……的办法

threaten to do sth.
give warning that one may hurt or punish 扬言要……

distract ... from
take one's attention from 使分心

sign up(for sth.)
(cause to) sign an agreement to take part in sth. 报名参加;签约参加工作(或组织)

PROPER NAMES

AIDS
医]Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome 艾滋病/爱滋病
 
HIV
医]Human Immunodeficiency Virus 艾滋病病毒,人体免疫缺损病毒

Latino
(pl. Latinos)拉丁美洲人


Section B

The Last Dive at the Olympics

    I climbed the ladder, heard my dive announced, and commenced the moves that would thrust me into the air. Pushing off the diving board with my legs, I lifted my arms and shoulders back, and knew immediately I would be close to the board and might hit my hands. I tried to correct myself as I turned, spreading my hands wide apart. Then I heard a strange sound and my body lost control. Moments later I realized I had hit my head on the board.
    Initially, I felt embarrassment. I wanted to hide, to get out of the pool without anyone seeing me. Next I felt intense fear. Had I cut my head? Was I bleeding? Was there blood in the pool? Swimming to the side, I noticed many shocked faces. People were worried about my head; I was worried about something far more threatening. An official examined my head. In haste, I pushed him away, and everyone else who approached me. "Don't touch me!" I felt like screaming. "Get away from me!"
    These were the trials for the 1988 Olympics in Seoul, Korea. Until this dive, I had been ahead. But now, something else was more significant than winning. I might have endangered other divers' lives if I had spilled blood in the pool. For what I knew — that few others knew — was that I was HIV-positive.
    According to my mother, my natural parents were Samoan and only teenagers when I was born, so they gave me up for adoption. When I was only eighteen months old, I started gym classes. At ten, I explored doing gym exercises off the diving board at the pool.
    Because of my dark skin, kids at school called me names; I often got mugged coming home from school. My diving made me feel good about myself when my peers made me feel stupid. In the seventh grade, I started taking drugs.
    At sixteen, I knew I had a shot at the 1976 Olympics. At the trials, one month prior to the finals, I took first place on the ten-meter platform and on the springboard! This was surprising because I had trained mostly on the platform. In the finals, I won the silver medal for the platform. Unfortunately, I wasn't happy. Instead, I felt I failed because I hadn't won the gold. After that, I started training with Ron O'Brien, a well-known Olympic diving coach. Ron understood me and assisted my working more intensely. I soon became the international leader in diving. In the 1984 Olympics, I won two gold medals, one for platform, one for springboard. This was an enjoyable triumph.
    No one knew then I was gay, except Ron and a few friends. I feared being hated if people found out. Four years later, while preparing for the 1988 Olympics in Seoul, I learned my partner had AIDS. I had to accept I might be HIV-positive or have AIDS, too. When my HIV test results returned positive, I was shocked and confused. Was I dying? Was my shot at the '88 Olympics vaporized? What should I do? During this very difficult time, I couldn't tell anyone for fear I wouldn't be able to compete in the Olympics if people learned I was HIV-positive.
    Everyone was alarmed when I hit my head on the board at the trials in Seoul. Regardless, I made it into the finals. When we practiced the next morning, my coach made me start with the dive I'd hit my head on. At first, I was scared, but Ron made me do it six times. With each repetition, I felt more confident.
    During my last dive in the finals, I enjoyed for the last time the quietness underwater and then swam to the side of the pool. Afraid to look at the score-board, I watched Ron's face. Suddenly he leaped into the air, the crowd cheered, and I knew I'd won — two gold medals, one for the three-meter springboard, one for the ten-meter platform. None knew how hard it had been, except Ron and the friends I'd told I was HIV-positive.
    AIDS forced me to stop diving; I had to quit diving professionally after the Olympics.

    Words: 700

NEW WORDS

▲commence
v.   begin; start 开始

thrust
v.   push with force and suddenly 推,冲

apart
ad.  1. separate by a distance 分开地
2. (from) except for 除了……之外

initial
a.   which is at the beginning of 起初的,开始的

initially
ad.  at the beginning 开始地,起先

intense
a.   strong (in quality or feeling) 强烈的

bleed
vi.  lose blood 流血

haste
n.   quick movement or action 匆忙

approach
vt.  come near to 靠近,接近
n.   1. [U] the act of coming near 靠近,接近
2. [C] a means or way of entering 途径
3. [C] (to) a way or method of doing sth. 方式,方法

trial
n.   1. (pl.)[体]预赛,选拔赛
2. (an act of) testing to find quality, value, or usefulness 实验,检验
3. (an act of) hearing and judging a person or a case in a court 审判

significant
a.   of major importance 重要的

■endanger
vt.  cause danger to 危及,使遭受危险

spill
vt.  pour out 溅出,溢出

adopt
vt.  1. take into one's family and take on the responsibility as a parent 收养
2. use 采取,采用

adoption
n.   1. the act of adopting 收养
2. the act of using 运用,使用,采用

gym (gymnasium)
n.   physical training; a hall for physical training 体操,体育训练;体育馆

explore
vt.  1. travel into or through (a place) for the purpose of discovery 探索,探讨
2. examine carefully 探讨,仔细研究

mug
vt.  steal from and/or treat in a rough way 抢劫

prior
a.   earlier; coming or planned before 先前的;预先的

platform
n.   1. a raised floor of boards for speakers, performers, etc. 讲台,舞台
2. a board for jumping off to give height to a dive or jump 跳板

spring-board (springboard)
n.  (游泳池)跳水板

mostly
ad.  mainly; in most cases or most of the time 主要地

unfortunately
ad.  with regret or sad feelings 不幸的是;遗憾地

coach
n.   a person who trains people in different sports for games, matches, etc. 教练
vt.  train or teach; give instruction or advice to 训练; 指导,辅导

assist
v.   help or support 帮助,协助

leader
n.   a person or a thing that leads or is in advance of others 处于领先地位的人或事物;领袖,领导

triumph
n.   a complete victory or success 胜利,成功
vi.  (over) win; beat 获胜, 成功;击败

gay
n.   a homosexual person, esp. a man (尤指男)同性恋者
 
partner
n.   the person one is married to or having a loving or sexual relation with; the person one is doing sth. with 伴侣;伙伴

confuse
vt.  cause to be mistaken; fail to tell the difference between 弄错,使困惑;混淆

vapor
n.   a form like a gas which is made up of tiny drops of water or other liquids in the air 蒸气

vaporize
vi.  (cause to) change into vapor 变成蒸气

compete
vi.  take part in (a game, a match, etc.) 竞争,比赛

scare
vt.  cause sudden fear to 吓坏,使惊恐

repetition
n.   saying or doing again 重复

confident
a.   having belief in one's power or ability 自信的,相信的

score-board
n.   a board on which the score of a game is recorded as it is played (体育比赛)记分牌

leap
vi.  jump through the air, often landing in a different place 跳跃

quit
vt.  stop (doing sth.) and leave 放弃,停止
vi.  give up one's job 离职,辞职

professional
a.   relating to a person's work, especially work that requires special training 职业的

professionally
ad.  职业地;专业地

PHRASES AND EXPRESSIONS

in haste
in a hurry 匆忙

prior to
before 在……之前

make it
succeed in doing sth. 成功地做某事

start with
begin with 从……开始

assist (sb. with) sth.
help sb. do sth. 帮助做某事

PROPER NAMES

Olympics
奥林匹克运动会

Seoul
汉城(韩国首都)

Korea
朝鲜(地名)

Samoan
萨摩亚人

Ron O'Brien
罗恩·布赖恩(人名)


Section C

International Joint Efforts Against AIDS

    The uniting of the world around the AIDS epidemic is without prior example. As the number of AIDS cases around the world rapidly increases, nations are showing great focus in battling this common enemy — attacking rich and poor countries the same.
    By 1989, almost every nation on earth had established a program educating its people about AIDS, according to Jonathan Mann, director of the World Health Organization's (WHO) International Program on AIDS. At that time, 143 countries had reported one or more AIDS cases.
    In addition to national AIDS programs, working together internationally has begun. Through open exchanges of scientific facts as well as support of international organizations such as the World Health Organization, all nations can join efforts to fight against this life-threatening disease. According to WHO, this international effort has produced two critical developments: first, there is an amazing level of world-wide focus, using world scientists and international sharing of human and economic resources to fight AIDS. Second, the work of governments, organizations, and businesses has been followed by the very high activity of people — as singles, families, and communities.
    The Influence of AIDS
    The rise of Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) around the earth has represented a major challenge to medical progress both in developed and in less-developed countries. The past forty years saw great success in the control of spreading diseases and great strides toward achieving "health for all by the year 2000" (a major WHO goal) through improved basic health care, food, cleanliness, and immunization(免疫)programs.
    Yet, because of its sudden start and rapid spread, AIDS could soon wipe out this progress. By the end of 1988, more than 130,000 cases of AIDS were reported, but, because of underreporting, there may actually be more than 350,000 cases. Also, at least five million persons likely have the human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)(艾滋病病毒), which causes AIDS. That means as many as 400,000 new cases of AIDS could occur in the next few years — more than doubling the present total. Caring for AIDS patients could seriously stress economic resources even in richer countries.
    Preventing one case of AIDS means preventing many future cases, while preventing a case of measles(麻疹)or malaria(疟疾)in Africa would have little effect on its spreading, since those diseases are already  common in many countries. Resources devoted to AIDS testing, care, and education could also be used to battle other, more-known diseases in developing countries.
    Stopping the Spread
    AIDS spreads only in limited ways and can be prevented through informed and mature behavior. Encouraging such behavior depends on understanding the different ways AIDS is spread around the world. AIDS spreads in three basic ways: first, through sexual intercourse(性交); second, through contact with diseased blood; and third from an HIV mother to her baby. The actual patterns of spreading of the AIDS virus change from culture to culture.
    Spreading of AIDS in North America, Western Europe, Australia, New Zealand and parts of Latin America occurs most often among homosexual(同性恋)or bisexual(双性恋)men and intravenous (IV) (静脉内注射的)drug users(吸毒者), most often in city areas. Heterosexual(异性之间的)spreading is low, but there is danger that the spread of AIDS from male(男性) IV-drug users to their female(女性)partners could increase the appearance of AIDS in the heterosexual population.
    In sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America, particularly the Caribbean, most cases occur among heterosexuals, and spreading from mother-to-child is common. Spreading through homosexual contact and IV-drug use almost does not exist.
    In Eastern Europe, Northern Africa, the eastern Mediterranean, Asia, and most of the Pacific, fewer cases of AIDS, usually among drug users, have been reported thus far. The WHO estimates that Bangkok, Thailand IV-drug users having the AIDS virus increased from less than 1 percent in August 1987 to 30 percent one year later.
    Reaching Out
    The WHO believes that, as AIDS becomes more common, the disease promises to unite the world to a degree never seen before. In just two years, the international plan against AIDS has grown from ideas to practice, from speeches to action. The WHO is certain that, together, we will triumph over AIDS rather than allow the disease and the fears, worries, and prejudices(偏见)which go with it to overpower us.

    Words: 697


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