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新视野大学英语读写教程1 Unit4

2010年05月22日  所属:大学英语  来源:互联网  作者:新视野大学英语读写教程1

新视野大学英语读写教程1 Unit4:How to Make a Good Impression;Body Language。

Unit 4


Section A

Pre-reading Activities

First Listening
    Please listen to a short passage carefully and prepare to answer some questions.

Second Listening
    Listen to the tape again. Then answer the following questions with your own experiences.
    1. How long does it take us to judge the people we meet?
    2. What is one way you can have a positive effect on other people?
    3. What is the key to being the best person you can be?

How to Make a Good Impression

    Research shows we make up our minds about people through unspoken communication within seven seconds of meeting them. Consciously or unconsciously, we show our true feelings with our eyes, faces, bodies and attitudes, causing a chain of reactions, ranging from comfort to fear.
    Think about some of your most unforgettable meetings: an introduction to your future spouse, a job interview, an encounter with a stranger. Focus on the first seven seconds. What did you feel and think? How did you "read" the other person? How do you think he read you?
    You are the message. For 25 years I've worked with thousands who want to be successful. I've helped them make persuasive presentations, answer unfriendly questions, communicate more effectively. The secret has always been you are the message.
    Others will want to be with you and help you if you use your good qualities. They include: physical appearance, energy, rate of speech, pitch and tone of voice, gestures, expression through the eyes, and the ability to hold the interest of others. Others form an impression about you based on these.
    Think of times when you know you made a good impression. What made you successful? You were committed to what you were talking about and so absorbed in the moment, you lost all self-consciousness.
    Be yourself. Many how-to books advise you to stride into a room and impress others with your qualities. They instruct you to greet them with "power handshakes" and tell you to fix your eyes on the other person. If you follow all this advice, you'll drive everyone crazy — including yourself.
    The trick is to be consistently you, at your best. The most effective people never change from one situation to another. They’re the same whether they're having a conversation, addressing their garden club or being interviewed for a job. They communicate with their whole being; the tones of their voices and their gestures match their words.
    Public speakers, however, often send mixed messages. My favorite is the kind who say, "Ladies and gentlemen. I'm very happy to be here" — while looking at their shoes. They don't look happy. They look angry, frightened or depressed.
    The audience always believe what they see over what they hear. They think, "He's telling me he's happy, but he's not. He's not being honest."
    Use your eyes. Whether you're talking to one person or one hundred, always remember to look at them. Some people start to say something while looking right at you, but three words into the sentence, they break eye contact and look out the window.
    As you enter a room, move your eyes comfortably; then look straight at those in the room and smile. Smiling is important. It shows you are relaxed. Some think entering a room full of people is like going into a lion's cage. I disagree. If I did agree, I certainly wouldn't look at my feet or at the ceiling. I'd keep my eye on the lion!
    Lighten up. Once in a staff meeting, one of the most powerful chairmen in the entertainment industry became very angry over tiny problems, scolded each worker and enjoyed making them fear him. When he got to me, he shouted, "And you, Ailes, what are you doing?"
    I said, "Do you mean now, this evening or for the rest of my life?" There was a moment of silence. Then the chairman threw back his head and roared with laughter. Others laughed too. Humor broke the stress of a very uncomfortable scene.
    If I had to give advice in two words, it would be "lighten up"! You can always see people who take themselves too seriously. Usually they are either brooding or talking a great deal about themselves.
    Take a good hard look at yourself. Do you say "I" too often? Are you usually focused on your own problems? Do you complain frequently? If you answered yes to even one of these questions, you need to lighten up. To make others comfortable, you have to appear comfortable yourself. Don't make any huge changes; just be yourself. You already have within you the power to make a good impression, because nobody can be you as well as you can.

    words: 707

NEW WORDS

impression
n.   1. the effect produced in sb.'s mind 印象,效果
2. an idea or opinion that one forms about sth. 感觉,感想

conscious
a.   1. realizing sth. 感觉到,意识到
2. fully awake; knowing what is happening around 处于清醒状态,有知觉的

consciously
ad.  意识到地,感觉到地,神志清楚地

unconsciously
ad.  无意识地,无感觉地,神志不清地

self-conscious
a.   1. nervous or embarrassed about the way one looks or appears 不自然的,难为情的,忸怩的
2. strongly aware of who or what one is or what one is doing 有自我意识的

self-consciousness
n.   害羞,忸怩;自我意识

attitude
n.   1. a position of the body 姿势,姿态
2. the way one thinks and feels about sth. or sb. 态度,看法

reaction
n.   1. the way a person reacts to something 反应
2. a course of change that occurs when two or more kinds of matter are put together 反应,作用

range
v.   1. occur (between certain limits)(在一定幅度或范围内)变动,变化
2. put things in rows; order in a line or lines 排列;把……排成行
n.   1. a choice; a variety 种类;广泛(性)
2. the distance over which an object can be sent or thrown; the distance over which a sound can be heard, etc. 射程;距离,范围

introduction
n.   1. the introducing of one person to another 介绍,(正式)引见
2. the introducing of sth. 引进,采用

▲spouse
n.   a husband or wife 配偶(指夫或妻)

interview
n.   1. a meeting and discussion with sb. seeking a job, etc.(对求职者等的)面谈,面试
2. a discussion in which a television or radio reporter asks a person questions that he thinks listeners would like to hear the answers to (记者等的)采访,访谈
vt.  question a person in an interview 对……进行面谈(或面试);对……采访

encounter
n.   a meeting with sb. that happens by chance 意外(或偶然)相遇
vt.  meet or have to deal with (sth. bad, esp. a danger or difficulty) 遇到,遭遇(尤指危险或困难)

focus
v.   direct attention, etc. to one point 使(注意力)集中

▲persuasion
n.   the act of making sb. do sth., or not do sth., by arguing with them and advising them 说服,劝说

persuasive
a.   able to persuade sb. to do or believe sth. 有说服力的,能使人相信的

presentation
n.   the presenting of sth. 表现,描述

physical
a.   1. having to do with one's body 身体的,肉体的
2. having to do with things that can be seen 物质的,有形的,实物的

appearance
n.   1. what can be seen of a person, thing, etc. 外观,外貌,外表
2. the act of beginning to exist or becoming within one's reach 出现

rate
n.   1. the speed with which sth. happens or is done 速度,速率
2. the number of occasion within a certain period of time when sth. happens 比率,率

pitch
n.   the highness or lowness of a voice or a musical note(说话等)声音(或音调)的高低度;音高

tone
n.   the quality of a sound, esp. of the human voice 音调,音

gesture
n.   a movement of the hand, head, etc. that expresses something 手势,示意动作

absorb
vt.  1. hold sb.'s attention completely or interest sb. greatly 吸引……的注意力,使……感兴趣
2. take in and hold sth. 吸收

▲stride
vi.  walk with long steps, often because one is feeling very sure and determined 大踏步走,阔步行进
n.   a long step 大步;步态,步法

impress
vt.  make sb. feel admiration and respect 给……深刻的印象,使钦佩

consistent
a.   1. always having the same opinions, standard, behaviour, etc. 一贯的
2. agreeing 一致的

consistently
ad.  一贯地,一直

speaker
n.   a person who makes a speech to a group of people 演讲者,演说家

depress
vt.  make sb. unhappy 使抑郁,使沮丧

audience
n.   a group of people who watch or listen to a play, concert, speech, the television, etc. 观众,听众

contact
n.   1. a state in which two people or things touch each other 接触
2. communication with a person, official group, country, etc. 接触,联系,交往

relax
v.   make or become less worried or stressed; spend time not doing very much 使(困难等)减少;(使)休息,放松

■lighten
v.   make or become less heavy or forceful 减轻,放松

entertainment
n.   things that interest and humour people 娱乐;供消遣的东西

roar
vi.  make a loud, deep sound 大声叫喊,咆哮

humor (英 humour)
n.   the funny or pleasing quality or qualities of sb. or sth. 幽默,诙谐

▲brood
v.   (over, on) worry, or think a lot about sth. that makes one sad (不快或怨忿地)想;忧伤;考虑

PHRASES AND EXPRESSIONS

make up one's mind
decide 下定决心,打定主意

range from... to...
occur from...to... 从……到……(范围或幅度内)变化

focus on
direct (sth. such as one's attention) firmly on (a subject); pay attention to 使(注意力)集中在

drive sb. crazy
make sb. feel very angry or annoyed 逼得某人发疯或受不了

at one's best
in one's best state or condition 处于最佳状态,在全盛时期

communicate with
speak to; send a message to; be understood by (sb.) 与……交谈,与……交流


lighten up
sth. you say to tell sb. to stop being so serious or annoyed 放松,不要生气

take ...seriously
treat a thing or person as important 认真地对待

PROPER NAMES

Ailes
艾尔斯(人名)

Section B

Body Language

    "I liked him the minute I saw him!" "Before she even said a word, I knew there was something funny about her." Such statements are examples of "snap judgments", opinions which are formed suddenly, seemingly on no sound reason at all. Most people say snap judgments are unsound or even dangerous. They also admit they often make snap judgments and find them to be fairly sound.
    Snap judgments like "love at first sight" or "instant hate", if taken seriously, have usually been considered signs of immaturity or lack of common sense. When someone "has a feeling" about someone else, people more often laugh than pay attention. Most people think you find out about a person by listening to what he says over a period of time. Others say "actions speak louder than words," usually in relation to keeping promises, paying bills or sending money home.
    Because people assume "you are what you say you are", they talk a lot to become acquainted with each other. Once two people have become acquainted, they think it was their conversation that gave them their information about each other.
    As behavioral sciences develop, however, researchers find the importance of speech has been overestimated. Although speech is the most obvious form of communication, we do use other forms of which we may be only partially aware or, in some cases, completely unaware. It is possible we are unconsciously sending messages with every action, messages which are unconsciously picked up by others and used in forming opinions. These unconscious actions and reactions to them may in part account for our "feelings" and "snap judgments".
    We communicate a great deal, researchers have found, with our bodies — by the way we move, sit, stand and what we do with our hands and heads. Imagine a few people sitting in a waiting room: one is tapping his fingers on his briefcase, another keeps rubbing his hands together, another is biting his fingernails, still another grabs the arms of his chair tightly and one keeps running his fingers through his hair. These people aren't talking but they're "saying" a lot if you know the "body language" they're using.
    Two of the most "telling" forms of behavior are driving a car and playing games. Notice a person's reaction to stress in these situations and to aggressive behavior in others. Those who easily become angry, excited, passive or resentful when driving or playing may be giving insights into the inside self.
    While clothing serves a purely practical function, how you dress also communicates many things about your social status, state of mind and even your aspirations and dreams. The eleven-year-old girl who dresses like a college student and the forty-year-old woman who dresses like a teenager are saying something through what they wear. What you communicate through your kind of dress definitely influences others to accept the picture of yourself you are projecting: in the business world, the person who dresses like a successful manager is most likely to be promoted into a managing position.
    Also important are the ornaments a person wears: buttons, medals, jewels, etc. Such ornaments are often the means by which a person announces a variety of things about himself: his convictions (campaign buttons), his beliefs (religious tokens), his membership in certain groups (club pins or badges), his past achievements (college ring or Phi Beta Kappa key) and his economic status (diamonds).
    Another sign of a person's nature is said to be found in his choices in architecture and furniture. A person who would really like to live in a castle would probably be more at home in the Middle Ages. Those who like Victorian family houses and furniture might secretly welcome a return to more rigid social norms. People who are content with modern design are probably comfortable with modern life-styles.
    When you see a person for the first time, even though he doesn't speak to you, you begin watching him — his actions, his attitude, his clothing and many other things. There's a wealth of information there if you know how to "read" it. Perhaps snap judgments aren't so unsound after all.

words:688

NEW WORDS

statement
n.   something that one says or writes, often officially 说话,叙述,声明

snap
a.   done quickly and suddenly, often without careful thought 迅速的,突然的

judgment(英judgement)
n.   1. an opinion 看法,意见
2. the ability to form common sense opinions or to make wise decisions 判断力,识别力

▲seemingly
ad.  in a way it appears; as if 从表面上看起来;似乎是

instant
a.   immediate; happening suddenly or at once 立即的,即刻的;瞬间发生的

action
n.   something one does 行为

assume
vt.  accept or believe that sth. is true even though one has no evidence 假定;想当然认为,臆断

▲acquaint
vt.  make someone or oneself familiar with or aware of 使认识,使了解

behavior (behaviour)
n.   the way one acts or behaves 行为,举止

behavioral (behavioural)
a.   concerning the behavior of an animal or a person, or the study of their behavior (关于)行为的;行为科学的

estimate
vt.  figure out; judge 估计;判断

overestimate
v.   think sth. is bigger or more important, etc. than it really is 过高估计,过高评价

obvious
a.   easily seen or understood; clear 显然的,明显的

partial
a.   not complete 部分的,不完全的

partially
ad.  partly; not completely 部分地,不完全地

account
v.   (for) explain or give a reason for 作出解释,提出理由,说明
n.   1. a report or description of sth. that has happened 记述,描述,报告
2. the plan by which a bank looks after your money for you 账户;交易关系

rub
vt.  move one thing against another 擦,摩擦

aggressive
a.   1. using or showing force or stress in order to succeed 活跃有为的,积极进取的
2. ready or likely to fight or argue 挑衅的,侵略的

passive
a.   not active; not showing any feelings or action 被动的;消极的

▲resent
v.   feel angry about sth. because it is unfair (尤指因感到委屈、伤害等)对……表示忿恨,对……怨恨

resentful
a.   feeling annoyed 充满忿恨的,怨恨不止的

function
n.   the purpose or special duty of a person or thing 功能,作用,机能

social
a.   1. concerning the position of people in society 一定社会地位的
2. concerning how people or groups of people connect; about the order of society 社会的

status
n.   one's social or work position when compared to other people 地位,身份

▲aspiration
n.   (often pl.) a strong desire to have or do sth. (常用复数)强烈的愿望,志向

project
vt.  1. show or present (oneself or one's qualities) in a certain way 表明……特征,使呈现特性
2. plan 打算,计划
n.   1. a plan or secret plan 计划,规划
2. a piece of study or research (学术交流的)课题,作业,科研项目

promote
vt.  1. raise someone to a higher level or position 提升,晋升
2. encourage; help the progress of sth. 促进,增进

▲ornament
n.   something added to make something else look better 装饰品,点缀品

medal
n.   奖牌,奖章,勋章

jewel
n.   宝石,宝石饰物;首饰

conviction
n.   a very strong opinion or belief 坚定的信仰;确信

campaign
n.   a plan to do a number of things in order to achieve a special aim 运动

belief
n.   1. an idea about faith, political ideas, etc. 信念,信仰
2. a feeling that sb. or sth. is true, good or right, or that sb. or sth. really exists 相信,信任

religious
a.   1. connected with faith 宗教的,宗教上的
2. having a strong belief in a faith 笃信宗教的,虔诚的

▲token
n.   something that stands for or is a sign of something else 标志,象征

membership
n.   the state of being a member 会员身份,会员资格

▲badge
n.   徽章,证章;标记,标识

achievement
n.   something that is done successfully, esp. through hard work or skill 成就,成绩

economic
a.   connected with the supply of money, trade, industry, etc. 经济的,经济上的

architecture
n.   the style or kind of building 建筑式样,建筑风格

rigid
a.   strict 严格的,死板的


▲norm
n.   what people normally do or follow 准则

style
n.   the way that sth. is done, built, etc. 样式,风格

life-style
n.   the way one lives 生活方式

   PHRASES AND EXPRESSIONS


lack of
not having enough of 缺乏,不足

find out
discover 找出,查明,发现

actions speak louder than words
one is judged by what he does, rather than what he says he will do 行动比言语更响亮;事实胜于雄辩

in relation to
concerning 有关,关于

become/be acquainted with
become/be familiar or friendly with 与……相识,了解

pick up
1. learn interesting or useful information 获得
2. learn a new skill or language by practicing it rather than being taught it 学会

in part
to some degree; not completely 在某种程度上;部分

account for
explain or give a reason for 作出解释,提出理由,说明

be/feel at home
be/feel comfortable 感到无拘束,感到熟悉

be content with
be satisfied or happy with 对……感到满足


a wealth of
a great quantity of 大量的,丰富的

PROPER NAMES

Phi Beta Kappa
PBK联谊会(美国大学优秀生和毕业生的荣誉组织,成立于1776年);PBK联谊会会员
 
Victorian
connected with the time of Queen Victoria (1837-1901) (英国)维多利亚(女王)的,维多利亚时代的,维多利亚式的


Section C

Gestures

    A smile is a strong sign of a friendly and open attitude and a willingness to communicate. It is a positive, silent sign sent with the hope the other person will smile back. When you smile, you show you have noticed the person in a positive way. The other person considers it a compliment(敬意)and will usually feel good. The result? That person will usually smile back.
    Smiling does not mean you have to put on a false face or pretend you are happy all of the time. When you see someone you know, or would like to make contact with, smile. You are showing an open attitude to conversation.
    You might not realize a closed position is the cause of many conversational problems. A common closed position is sitting with your arms and legs crossed and your hand covering your mouth or chin(下巴). This is often called the "thinking pose(姿势)". Ask yourself this question: Are you going to interrupt someone who appears to be deep in thought? This position gives off "stay away" signs and prevents your main "sign sender" (your mouth) from being seen by others looking for inviting conversational signs. Without these inviting signs, others will most likely stay away from you and look for someone who appears to be ready for contact.
    To improve this habitual way of standing or sitting, start by keeping your hands away from your mouth, and keep your arms uncrossed. Crossed arms may show a rigid state of mind, not especially inviting to outside contact. They can also show a lack of patience, displeasure, or judgment — any of which would prevent people from opening up.
    The open body position is most effective when you place yourself within communicating distance of the other person — that is, within about five feet. Take care, however, not to enter someone's "personal space" by getting too close, too soon.
    Leaning(靠)forward a little while a person is talking shows your interest and shows you are listening to what the person is saying. By doing this, you are saying: I hear what you're saying, and I'm interested — keep talking! This is usually a compliment that will encourage him to continue talking.
    Often people will lean back with their hands over their mouth, chin, or behind their head in the "thinking" pose. This position gives off signs of judgment, doubt, and lack of interest from the listener. Since most people do not feel comfortable when they think they are being judged, this leaning-back position serves to prevent the speaker from continuing. It's far better to lean forward a little in a relaxed and natural way.
    In many cultures the most common form of first contact between two people is a handshake. This is true when meeting members of the same or opposite sex — and not just in work, but in social situations, too. In nearly every situation, a warm and firm handshake is a safe and positive way of showing an open and friendly attitude toward the people you meet.
    Be the first to extend your hand in greeting. Couple this with a friendly "Hello", a nice smile, and your name and you have made the first step to open the lines of communication between you and another person.
    The strongest gestures are sent through the eyes. Direct eye contact shows you are listening to the other person, and that you want to know about her.
    Eye contact should be natural, not forced or overdone. Have short periods of eye contact while you watch other parts of the person's face — especially the mouth. When the person smiles, be sure to smile back. But always make an effort to return your gaze(注视)to the person’s eyes as she speaks. It is common to look up, down, and all around when speaking to others, and not have eye contact at all times.
    Too much eye contact, especially if it is forced, can work against you. If you stare at a person, or leer(斜视)in a suspicious(怀疑的)way, the other person may feel uncomfortable and even suspicious about your intent(意图). A fixed stare can seem like aggressive behavior if it is a challenge as to who will look away first.

words: 700


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