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新视野大学英语读写教程1 Unit9

2010年05月22日  所属:大学英语  来源:互联网  作者:新视野大学英语读写教程1

《新视野大学英语读写教程》1第一册Unit9:单词课文词汇免费下载:Looking to the 21st Century;Trends for the 21st Century。

Unit 9


Section A

Pre-reading Activities

First Listening
    Having ideas about a story before you read it is an important reading skill. Please listen to a very short piece of recording.

Second Listening
    Now listen to the recording for the second time and try to the best of your ability to answer the following questions.
    1. How will work quality be determined in this new century?
    2. What tool brings about major changes in this new century?
    3. What are the five tasks this tool will do in this new century?

Looking to the 21st Century

    1. Your Future
    The future does not determine itself. The actions of the present determine the future.
    Edward Cornish, editor of The Futurist magazine published by the World Future Society, says:
    "The responsibility we have for the future begins when we recognize that we ourselves create the future — that the future is not something imposed upon us by fate or other forces beyond our control. We ourselves build the future both through what we do and what we do not do."

    2. Your Brain
    Your brainwaves may be checked to see whether you are busy, tired or doing your work properly.
    Psychologist Arthur F. Kramer tested volunteers working on arithmetic problems. He could predict their performance from the strength of the brain's electrical activity measured through the head.
    The future? Bosses could measure brain activity to learn worker quality. Frequent computer analysis could tell whether workers, like air traffic controllers, are seeing all activity clearly enough to monitor it properly.

    3. Your Doctor
    More and more, doctors will use visual information about your condition from computers, instead of textbooks, for diagnosis and treatment.
    Home computers will enable you to answer interactive questions about your health and show the alternative results should you act in a certain way.

    4. Your Car
    Cars will be almost entirely controlled by computers.
    To pay for costs, cars will be billed for using high-speed toll roads. Computers will record the passage of the car and automatically take the money from the owner's computer bank account.
    Computers will show drivers maps of districts the car is crossing on a small screen in the car.
    Computers will diagnose any problems with the engine. Computer connections will list the nearest places of repair, tell the cost of new parts and the place where they can be bought.

    5. The Computer-Home
    More than half of the home computers sold in the United States in recent years will become essential to home life in the West. Future tasks computers already do at home include:
    Computers turn on the lights, heating and essential household services before people arrive home from work. Computers control cooking, hot water, security.
    Computers enable homework assignments to be done with worldwide resources, using sites like museums and science facilities around the world. Homework help can come equally from the local library, or libraries and databases in places as far apart as New York and London, or from teachers and fellow students around the globe.
    Many shoppers order groceries at home through Internet suppliers and have purchases delivered.

    6. The Workplace
    The changing face of work and the workplace is one of the most widespread influences in Western society.
    Women now form more than half the workers; the percentage is rising as they start up small businesses of their own, often working from home.
    People are changing careers on average every ten years now, instead of staying in a job for life.
    Increases in information and knowledge-based businesses are reducing levels of middle management. Top managers get all the information needed to work together with front-line staff.
    Specialists are becoming more important than general workers.

    7. The Environment
    Protection of the environment used to be the concern of special groups. Now governments and businesses realise bad air and water pollution affect everyone, making it difficult for cities to survive and for businesses to make a profit.
    London, England's biggest city, often suffers from air pollution which causes more than 1,000 deaths a year. Especially the very young, the elderly and cigarette smokers are at high risk.
    Many European countries and the United States check vehicles for gas and smoke emissions to make sure the levels are below the permitted output. For example, Germany has 600 sites that monitor carbon monoxide.

    8. Your Health
    Physical fitness and healthy lifestyles have changed from fashion and hobby for a few to official policy for many businesses and governments.
    Smoking cigarettes is under siege as a habit. Smoking advertising is banned in many areas.
    Although pills for tension, heart conditions, weight and other life-threatening conditions are prescribed by Western doctors, most now require patients to develop healthy lifestyles by changing diets and exercising more to keep well.

    Words: 700

NEW WORDS

editor
n.   a person who prepares (a book, newspaper, film, etc.) 编辑

futurist
n.   a person who favors futurism 未来主义者

publish
vt.  1. bring out (a book, newspaper, etc.) 出版
2. make known in general 发布;公布

impose
vt.  1. (on) put (a load, or punishment) on 把……强加于
2. (on) establish (an additional bill) officially 征(税等),处以(罚款、监禁等)

fate
n.   power beyond human control that decides events 命运

volunteer
n.   a person who offers to do sth. 志愿者
v.   offer to do sth. without pay or reward 甘愿

arithmetic
n.   [U] the science of numbers; the adding, dividing, etc. of numbers 算术
a.   of or concerning arithmetic 算术的

predict
vt.  say in advance (what will happen) 预测

performance
n.   1. action or way of doing sth. 表现
2. show of music, a play, etc. 表演

electrical
a.   concerned with or using electricity 与电有关的;用电的

analysis
n.   examination of sth.; analyzing 分析

◆diagnosis
n.   discovery of the nature of a disease 诊断

treatment
n.   1. the act or way of dealing with a disease 治疗
2. dealing with 处理;对待

▲interact
vi.  1. have an effect on each other 相互作用;相互影响
2. exchange information or instructions 互通信息

interactive
a.   1. acting on each other 相互作用;互相影响
2. communicating (between the user and the machine)(人机之间)可互通信息的

alternative
a.   giving a choice from among more than two things 可选择的
n.   a serious choice (必须作的)选择

▲toll
n.   a small sum of money that one has to pay in order to use a particular bridge or road (过路或过桥等的)费用

engine
n.   a machine that turns power into movement 引擎;发动机

connection (英connexion)
n.   1. joining; uniting 连接
2. relations between two things, people, or groups 关系;联系

household
n.   people living in a house 家庭
a.   concerned with the management of a house 家庭的

security
n.   1. protection 治安保卫
2. state of being secure 安全

worldwide
a. & ad. in or all over the world 世界范围的

site
n.   1. a station from which one can get information through the Internet 网站
2. a place 地点;地方

museum
n.   a building where old or important objects from history, science, or the arts are kept and shown 博物馆

facility
n.   1. (pl.) useful things 设施
2. an advantage or opportunity 便利,容易,方便

▲database
n.   a computer's organization of information 资料库,数据库

globe
n.   1. the Earth 地球
2. an object in the shape of a ball, especially one with a map of the Earth painted on it 球状物;地球仪

grocer
n.   a shop-keeper who sells dry foods and other things for the home 食品杂货商

groceries
n.   (pl.) goods (usually foods and other things for the home) sold by a grocer 食品杂货

Internet
n.   the worldwide network of computer connections 因特网

purchase
n.   sth. that one buys 购买的东西
vt.  buy 购买
widespread
a.   1. occurring in many places or among many people 广泛的
2. wide open; fully extended 展开的

percentage
n.   a number stated as if it is part of a whole which is 100 百分率

career
n.   1. a profession 职业
2. a part of one's life that one spends working 生涯

management
n.   1. [C] people who are in charge of a firm, industry, etc. 管理人员
2. [U] the act of controlling a business 管理

specialist
n.   a person who has special interest or skills in a limited field of work or study; master 专家

protection
n.   1. the act of keeping safe or the state of being kept safe 保护
2. sb. or sth. that protects 保护人(物)

pollution
n.   act of making dangerously impure or unfit for use 污染

survive
v.   1. continue to live, especially after coming close to death 幸免于难
2. live longer than 比……活得长

profit
n.   1. money gained 利润
2. advantage gained from some action 得益
v.   gain advantage or learn from 得益(于)

emit
vt.  send out 排放

emission
n.   1. sth. that is sent out 排放物
2. the act or action of sending out sth. 排放

permit
v.   allow 容许
n.   official paper allowing sth. 许可证

output
n.   the quantity produced 产量

carbon
n.   碳

■monoxide
n.   一氧化物

policy
n.   a set of ideas or principles that is used as a foundation for making decisions 政策

▲siege
n.   an act of surrounding a city, etc., by an army trying to capture it 包围

advertise
v.   1. seek to sell goods or services by giving public notice in newspaper, on television, etc. 广告(销售)
2. make public; give public notice in newspaper, on television, etc. 公布;广告

ban
vt.  prevent by law or power; not allow 禁止
n.   not allowing an act or speech by power 禁止

pill
n.   a small piece of medicine 药片

tension
n.   1. (a feeling of) nervous anxiety, worry, or pressure 紧张,不安
2. the degree or tightness or stiffness of a wire, rope, etc. 拉力

prescribe
vt.  1. order as a medicine or treatment 开处方
2. state (what must be done) 规定

diet
n.   1. food and drink usually taken 日常饮食
2. any special combination of food eaten in sickness, or to increase or decrease weight 规定的饮食

PHRASES AND EXPRESSIONS

impose on (upon)
force on; place on 强加于

work on (upon)
have (sth.) as the subject of thought or effort 努力做……

more and more
in an increasing quantity or degree 越来越……

pay for
1. suffer the result of 因……而受苦
2. pay some money to acquire sth. 付钱购买……

bill for
give or send a bill stating how much money one has to pay for goods or services 因……送交某人账单或罚单

start up
begin (sth. such as a business); begin working (in a trade, profession, etc.) 开办,开设

on average
as the usual rate or estimate 平均

at risk
in danger 冒险

change from
change (sth. or sb.) from a state to another 由……变来

under siege
in a state of being surrounded 被包围

PROPER NAMES

St.
圣……
 
Edward Cornish
爱德华·科尼什(人名)
 
Arthur F. Kramer
阿瑟·费·克雷默(人名)

New York
纽约(地名)

London
伦敦(地名)

England
英格兰(地名)

Europe
欧洲(地名)

European
欧洲的

Germany
德国(地名)

Section B

Trends for the 21st Century

    What problems will our world encounter in the next 1,000 years? Social scientists and economists, farming experts and environmentalists pose this question and examine data, information from surveys.
    In every field, experts examine changes to understand the state of the field. To understand a country's economy, economists check growth in an industry such as steel. To understand the state of business, they may look at the number of building permits for new houses. The information learned shows increases or decreases. Important trends emerge in each field.
    Population
    Population is important to every person on Earth. People tend to live longer in most places. In Central Europe, however, life span is dropping because health care is not what it was a few years ago. Factors affecting general health include excessive smoking and drinking of alcohol and polluted water supplies.
    The population explosion on our planet has been increasing at an alarming rate but the percentage of increase is decreasing. One out of every five people on Earth is Chinese, yet China's growth rate has slowed. As the number of women going to school increases, the growth rate declines.
    Food Production
    The production of grain seems to be decreasing mainly because of climate changes. Natural disasters like storms and floods have washed away many crops.
    With less land for cattle and sheep, less meat like beef and lamb is being produced. Production of chicken, turkey and fish has increased, however. The amount of ocean fish has not increased, but fish farm production has.
    Fish farming is very efficient: producing a kilogram of fish utilizes less than 2 kilograms of feed, but it takes 2.2 kilograms of feed to produce 1 kilogram of chicken. One kilogram of beef requires 7 kilograms of grain. People, therefore, may eat less red meat in the future and more fish.
    Energy
    Using fossil fuels for energy has not altered very much but wind energy use is increasing significantly. Denmark, Germany, the Netherlands, Britain, and America have large wind power projects. China, India, Mexico, New Zealand, and Ukraine are also developing wind power.
    Energy from nuclear power plants is steadily increasing but the problem of dangerous waste limits growth in many regions. Because many electrical companies consider nuclear energy too expensive, the trend is toward less dangerous sources of energy.
    While natural gas use increases, use of coal as fuel is decreasing. Natural gas, an outstanding energy fuel, can be used to heat homes, make electricity, and power cars.
    Economics
    As countries around the world trade more with one another, more products are available. But the fast development of world economy will bring about many new problems. With fewer trees, the paper industry is producing more paper from recycled materials but, unfortunately, damages the planet. The paper-making process uses large amounts of water, burns fossil fuels and produces much chemical waste.
    Automobile production is down; bicycle production is up. Crowded highways, high gasoline costs, and ease of bicycling are three reasons for this change.
    Health
    Three major health trends exist as we begin the new century. Health care is better than ever. Medical research breakthroughs include finding tumors early, and saving lives through CAT scans and surgery. Surviving cancer is a new trend. HIV/AIDS, however, is spreading quickly all over the world.
    The third major trend is toward an attitude of indifference. People seem to have forgotten ways to keep diseases under control. Although medical science had achieved control over several dangerous diseases, some are returning. For instance, tuberculosis, once a dangerous killer, was cured. Now the disease is appearing again.
    Nature
    Pollution continues to affect our forests and water. The bird population is decreasing because of oil spills and spreading cities. Seas and oceans are changing. Trees are cut down, more soil washes away, and water quality is affected. Many of these trees are in our rain forests where thick areas of plants and trees, home for many birds and animals, are disappearing.
    Conclusion
    Our challenges for this new century are clear. The problems of numerous inhabitants on this small planet will continue to be important to each of us. These challenges show that all of us need to be involved in solving the problems. May we find new ways to accomplish the task.

    Words: 708

NEW WORDS

trend
n.   a general direction or course of development 趋势

expert
n.   a specialist 专家
a.   having much skill 熟练的;有经验的

pose
vt.  ask 问
vi.  stand or sit in a particular position to be drawn, photographed, etc. 摆出姿势(供人画画、拍照等)

data
n.   facts; information 资料;数据

survey
n.   the act of finding out information about sth.; study 调查
vt.  look at or consider as a whole 查看;鉴定

growth
n.   1. development; increase 发展;增长
2. growing of produce; the fact of being grown (as a crop) 种植;长势
3. the act or rate of growing and developing 成长

decrease
n.   reducing; becoming less 减少;下降
v.   reduce, become less 减少;下降

tend
v.   be likely 趋向于;可能

factor
n.   influence that helps to produce a result 因素;要素

excessive
a.   too much; too great 过分

alcohol
n.   (very strong) wine (烈性)酒

pollute
vt.  make (air, water, soil, etc.) dangerously impure or unfit for use 污染

planet
n.   a large body in space that moves round a star, especially the sun 行星

decline
v.   1. become worse or less 降低;变得不如以前
2. refuse usually politely; being unwilling(婉言)拒绝
n.   process of becoming worse or less 降低

grain
n.   1. a seed of rice, wheat, or other such food plants 谷粒
2. crops from food plants like rice or wheat 谷物;谷类
3. a small hard piece 颗粒

climate
n.   1. the regular condition of the weather at a region over a period of years 气候
2. condition of opinions (舆论)状况

disaster
n.   sudden serious hard times 灾害,灾难

lamb
n.   1. the meat of young sheep 羊肉
2. a young sheep 小羊;羔羊

◆turkey
n.   1. the meat of furkey 火鸡肉
2. a bird like, but larger than a chicken, used for food 火鸡

amount
n.   quantity; total 量
vi.  (to) equal to 等于;达到

efficient
a.   working well and without waste 效率高的

utilize (英utilise)
vt.  use; make use of 使用

▲fossil
n.   a part or print of a very old animal or plant, kept forever in rock, ice, etc. 化石
a.   of fossil化石的

alter
v.   change; make or become different 改变

nuclear
a.   being, using, or producing the great power that is got by breaking up atoms 原子核的;核动力的;应用核能的

steady
a.   1. firm; not shaking 稳固的
2. regular; not changing wildly 平稳的
3. not likely to change 稳定的

steadily
ad.  in a steady way 稳定地

region
n.   quite a large area or part 地区

outstanding
a.   excellent well-known; important 优秀的;突出的

product
n.   sth. made or produced 产品

available
a.   able to be got, used, etc. 能够得到的

▲recycle
vt.  process sth. so that it can be used again (废物)再利用;废物回收

chemical
n.   chemical matter 化学物质
a.   of chemistry 化学的

highway
n.   (AmE) main road; (BrE) highroad 公路

ease
n.   1. ability to do sth. easily 轻易,不费力
2. state of being comfortable and without worry or anxiety 安逸

▲breakthrough
n.   advance or discovery 突破

◆tumor (英tumour)
n.   a mass of quickly growing diseased cells in the body 肿瘤
surgery
n.   1. medical operation 外科手术;手术
2. treatment of diseases or injuries by operation on the body 外科

cancer
n.   diseased growth in the body 癌症

indifferent
a.   not interested 不感兴趣;冷漠的

indifference
n.   lack of interest; non-concern 不关心;冷漠

instance
n.   an example 例子

■tuberculosis
n.   a serious spreading disease that attacks especially the lungs 肺病

conclusion
n.   1. opinion resulted from reasoning; final decision 结论
2. end; established situation 结束;结局

numerous
a.   many 无数的

inhabitant
n.   a person or an animal that lives in a place 栖居者

involve
vt.  cause (sb. or sth.) to be part of, included in, mixed with, or deeply concerned in (sth. or doing sth.) 使卷入,陷入

accomplish
vt.  succeed in doing 完成

PHRASES AND EXPRESSIONS

at an alarming rate
at a shocking speed 以惊人的速度

wash away
destroy by flood, etc.(被洪水)破坏

involve in
get sb. or sth. into a difficult situation or condition; cause to be mixed up in 使卷入,陷入

May...
I/We hope very much that ... 愿……
  PROPER NAMES

Denmark
丹麦(地名)
 
Netherlands
荷兰(地名)

Britain
不列颠(英格兰、威尔士和苏格兰的总称)

India
印度(地名)

Mexico
墨西哥(地名)

New Zealand
新西兰(地名)

Ukraine
乌克兰(地名)

CAT scan
computerized axial topography scan 计算机化X射线轴向分层造影扫描;CAT扫描

Section C

Lifestyles of the 21st Century

    Americans in the future will probably not live as Americans do today. Fusion(核聚变)power will be capable of producing energy without limits while saving natural resources. People may live well past a hundred years, be equipped with plastic body parts, and eat man-made foods. Space travelers will walk on the planets. These factors of life were science fiction images a few decades ago. Today such events are already discussed as if real.
    How do people image life in the United States in the future? Below are some predictions made by Richard N. Farmer, who gave his light-hearted opinion of the "World of 2084."
    Since no one wants to do the dirty, uninteresting factory-line work any more, we decide not to. So we take some chimpanzees(黑猩猩), or if we really want some strength, some great apes(猿), do a bit of scientific engineering here and there, and we create some animals, which are made for the factory line. They work their eight hours a day, and don't mind the repetition a bit. ...
    Jack Baxter, a common American of 2084, glanced at his stop-watch. He was slowing down; he could only run the kilometer in four minutes flat now, and when he was 80, he could do it in three-fifty. But, being 140 years old made a difference, regardless of what his doctor said. Jack had received his first cancer shot in 1981; he had received his man-made heart in 2014, before they really got those human ones perfected, so he wasn't a very good example of a complete human. But he felt pretty good; he had been one of the lucky ones, who had received his shots to make him young again before he turned 40, so he was still a young-looking fellow. Of course, he looked old in his world, since no one got much beyond 30-looking any more. And, of course, he would die; right now, fellows pushing 200 were in poor shape and kicking off. ...
    Death used to be a pretty simple thing. Body processes stopped, and you left us. But nowadays even, it is not uncommon for a person to be brought back with heart massage(按摩)perhaps a full hour or more after he's "dead." By 2084, if we can store a dead body in a cold refrigerator room soon enough, lots of people who now would die may not. Now we all die, sooner or later; maybe by 2084, we won't die until we are good and ready. And that would be a new freedom indeed.
    Johnny, who's almost 10, can't read, but no one is worried. Indeed, Johnny has been going to school since he was 3, but it hasn't been the kind of school that we are familiar with. The kids learn all sorts of things about living together and getting along with each other, but nothing about school subjects. You see, we have figured out that age ten is about the time that a child can really put reading and mathematical skills to use. So, on his tenth birthday, Johnny goes to the brain-control center. He sits for an hour or so under a machine that looks something like a hair-dryer, with him attached to it. When he finishes, the entire reading, writing, and math patterns he needs to know are impressed right on his brain. Why fool around for years drilling kids, when all education really is made up of is a set of very mixed brain patterns? Just add them straight onto the brain, and you save lots of time and money. And if you want to teach any other kind of skills, like electrical theory for electricity workers, well, there's a pattern for that too.

    Words: 611
 


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