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新视野大学英语读写教程1 Unit 8

2010年05月22日  所属:大学英语  来源:互联网  作者:新视野大学英语读写教程1

《新视野大学英语读写教程》1第一册Unit 8:单词、词汇、课文免费下载:Birth of Bright Ideas;Ways of Increasing Creativity。

Unit 8


Section A

Pre-reading Activities

First Listening
    Having ideas about a story before you read it is an important reading skill. Please listen to a very short piece of recording.

Second Listening
    Now listen to the recording for the second time and try to the best of your ability to answer the following questions.
    1. Where do good ideas come from?
    2. How many examples or ways of getting good ideas are discussed?
    3. How did Wagner get the idea for the beginning of his music?

Birth of Bright Ideas

    No satisfactory way exists to explain how to form a good idea. You think about a problem until you're tired, forget it, maybe sleep on it, and then flash! When you aren't thinking about it, suddenly the answer arrives as a gift from the gods.
    Of course, all ideas don't occur like that but so many do, particularly the most important ones. They burst into the mind, glowing with the heat of creation. How they do it is a mystery but they must come from somewhere. Let's assume they come from the "unconscious." This is reasonable, for psychologists use this term to describe mental processes which are unknown to the individual. Creative thought depends on what was unknown becoming known.
    All of us have experienced this sudden arrival of a new idea, but it is easiest to examine it in the great creative personalities, many of whom experienced it in an intensified form and have written it down in their life stories and letters. One can draw examples from genius in any field, from religion, philosophy, and literature to art and music, even in mathematics, science, and technical invention, although these are often thought to depend only on logic and experiment. All truly creative activities depend in some degree on these signals from the unconscious, and the more highly insightful the person, the sharper and more dramatic the signals become.
    Take the example of Richard Wagner composing the opening to "Rhinegold". Wagner had been occupied with the idea of the "Ring" for several years, and for many months had been struggling to begin composing. On September 4, 1853, he reached Spezia sick, went to a hotel, could not sleep for noise without and fever within, took a long walk the next day, and in the afternoon flung himself on a couch intending to sleep. Then at last the miracle happened for which his unconscious mind had been seeking for so long.  Falling into a sleeplike condition, he suddenly felt as though he were sinking in a mighty flood of water, and the rush and roar soon took musical shape within his brain. He recognized that the orchestral opening to the "Rhinegold", which he must have carried about within him yet had never been able to put it into form, had at last taken its shape within him. In this example, the conscious mind at the moment of creation knew nothing of the actual processes by which the solution was found.
    As a contrast, we may consider a famous story: the discovery by Henri Poincare, the great French mathematician, of a new mathematical method called the Fuchsian functions. Here we see the conscious mind, in a person of highest ability, actually watching the unconscious at work. For weeks, he sat at his table every day and spent an hour or two trying a great number of combinations but he arrived at no result. One night he drank some black coffee, contrary to his usual habit, and was unable to sleep. Many ideas kept surging in his head; he could almost feel them pushing against one another, until two of them combined to form a stable combination. When morning came, he had established the existence of one class of Fuchsian functions. He had only to prove the results, which took only a few hours. Here, we see the conscious mind observing the new combinations being formed in the unconscious, while the Wagner story shows the sudden explosion of a new concept into consciousness.
    A third type of creative experience is exemplified by the dreams which came to Descartes at the age of twenty-three and determined his life path. Descartes had unsuccessfully searched for certainty, first in the world of books, and then in the world of men. Then in a dream on November 10, 1619, he made the significant discovery that he could only find certainty in his own thoughts, cogito ergo sum ("I think; therefore, I exist"). This dream filled him with intense religious enthusiasm.
    Wagner's, Poincare's, and Descartes' experiences are representative of countless others in every field of culture. The unconscious is certainly the source of instinctive activity. But in creative thought the unconscious is responsible for the production of new organized forms from relatively disorganized elements.

    Words: 707

NEW WORDS

satisfactory
a.   good enough to be pleasing, or for a purpose, rule, standard, etc. 令人满意的

flash
vi.  1. (of an idea) come suddenly 突然产生(想法、灵感)
2. move very fast 飞驰,掠过

particularly
ad.  especially 特别是

glow
vi.  1. produce light and heat without fire 发光,发热
2. show strong or warm color 呈现鲜艳的颜色

▲creation
n.   creating 创造

mystery
n.   something that is not fully understood 谜

reasonable
a.   showing common sense; fair 合理的,适当的

psychologist
n.   a person trained and educated to perform psychological research, testing and treatment 心理学家

process
n.   a connected set of actions or events that produce continuation or slow change 过程,进程

individual
n.   a human being regarded as unique 个体,个人

personality
n.   1. a person who is well-known to the public 名人
2. the quality or condition of being a person 人的品质或条件

▲intensify
v.   make or become stronger 增强,加强

genius
n.   1. [C] a person of exceptional natural ability 天才
2. [U] strong natural ability 天赋

religion
n.   belief in the existence of a god or gods or a creative force of greater power outside of one's self 宗教

philosophy
n.   the search for knowledge and understanding of the nature and meaning of all the natural world including human life 哲学

invention
n.   1. the action of creating something new 发明
2. something created 发明物

logic
n.   the science of thinking about or explaining the reasons for sth. 逻辑;逻辑学

truly
ad.  1. really; completely 真正地
2. honestly; exactly as described 真诚地,真心地

highly
ad.  very; to an unusually great degree 非常

dramatic
a.   1. sudden, exciting, not expected 引人注目的
2. about drama or acting 戏剧的;演戏的

compose
v.   create or produce (a written or musical piece) 创作(文学或音乐)

occupy
vt.  1. engage, employ, or busy (oneself) 把注意力集中于……
2. fill up (time or space) 占用(时间或空间)

▲fling
vt.  1. throw with force 猛扔,抛
2. move oneself or part of one's body suddenly or forcefully 猛烈地移动,急动

▲couch
n.   a long comfortable seat; a sofa 沙发

miracle
n.   an act or event that cannot be explained by known laws of nature 奇迹

▲mighty
a.   having or showing great power, skill, strength, or force 强大的,巨大的

recognize
vt.  1. realize or be aware that sth. exists or is true 注意到,认识到
2. identify as previously known; know sth. or sb. 认出

orchestral
a.   of or by a large group of musicians who play various musical instruments together 管弦乐的,管弦乐队的

contrast
n.   (with, between) unlikeness or difference shown by comparing objects or people 对照;(对照中的)差异

■mathematician
n.   a person gifted or learned in mathematics 数学家

mathematicial
a.   of or related to mathematics 数学的

combine
v.   come together; act together; unite, join together 结合,合并

combination
n.   something that results from two or more things (esp. chemicals) being combined 结合,合并;[化]化合物

▲surge
vi.  move (as if) in waves 汹涌

stable
a.   firm, without movement 稳定的

existence
n.   the fact or state of existing 存在

observe
vt.  see and notice sth. or sb.; watch sth. or sb. carefully 观察

explosion
n.   1. a sudden bursting out 爆发;骤发;爆炸
2. the act or a moment of sudden increase 激增,扩大

concept
n.   something formed in the mind; a thought or idea 概念

▲exemplify
vt.  show by example 例示,作为……的例子

▲certainty
n.   the fact, quality, or state of being certain 确定性,必然性;确实的事情

enthusiasm
n.   1. great positive feeling for or interest in a subject or cause 热情,积极性
2. a thing causing this feeling 爱好的事物

representative
a.   (of) being like or common to others of the same class 有代表性的

source
n.   a place from which sth. comes or is acquired 源泉,来源

responsible
a.   1. being the cause of sth. 是……的原因
2. having the duty of looking after sb. or sth. so that one can be blamed if things go wrong 需负责任的,承担责任的

organize
vt.  put together into a well-planned, sequenced whole 组织起来

element
n.   a necessary part of a whole 元素,成分

PHRASES AND EXPRESSIONS

sleep on sth.
leave sth. undecided or unattended until the next day 暂时不作决定,过一晚再作决定

a gift from the gods
an unearned, or unexpected, benefit that is greatly valued 不期而获又大受欢迎的好处,利益
 
depend on
happen according to; count on 依靠,依赖

write down
record in writing 写下来

be occupied with
be busy with 忙于做,专心于

seek for
try to find; look for 寻找

as though
as it would be if... 好象,俨然

take shape
take on a defined form 成型

put into
express in 表达

at work
having an effect; in operation 在起作用

arrive at
reach or make; come to 达成(协议);得出(结论)

search for
look carefully about a place in order to find 搜索,寻找

fill sb. with sth.
cause sb. to experience sth. (like feelings) 使充满(感情)

PROPER NAMES

Richard Wagner
理查德·瓦格纳(1813-1883),德国作曲家、剧作家

Rhinegold
瓦格纳创作的《莱茵河的黄金》

Spezia
斯佩齐亚,意大利西北部港市

Henri Poincare
亨利·庞加莱(1854-1912),法国数学家,物理学家和作家

Fuchsian functions
富克斯函数

Descartes
笛卡尔(1596-1650),法国哲学家、数学家;西方近代哲学的创始人之一,二元论者、唯理论者

cogito ergo sum
I think; therefore, I exist.[拉丁语]我思,故我在。

Section B

Ways of Increasing Creativity

    My guests had arrived, but once again, I'd forgotten to put the wine in the fridge. "Don't worry, " a friend said, "I can chill it for you right away. "
    Five minutes later she emerged from the kitchen with the wine perfectly cooled. Asked to reveal her secret, she said, "I poured it in a plastic bag and dipped it in ice water. "
    My guests applauded. "How wonderful if we could all be that clever, " one remarked.
    A decade of enquiry has convinced me we can. What separates the average person from Edison, Picasso or even Shakespeare isn't creative capacity. It's the ability to use that capacity by encouraging creative impulses and then acting upon them. Most of us seldom achieve our creative potential but the reservoir of ideas hiding within every one of us can be unlocked.
    The following techniques suggest concrete ways of increasing creativity:
    Capture the fleeting . A good idea is like a rabbit. It runs by so fast, sometimes you see only its ears or tail. To capture it, you must be ready. Creative people are always ready to act — possibly the only difference between us and them.
In a letter to a friend in 1821, Ludwig van Beethoven wrote about thinking of a beautiful tune while half asleep in a carriage: "But scarcely did 1 awake when away flew the tune and I could not recall any part of it." Fortunately, for Beethoven and for us, the next day in the same carriage, the tune returned to him and he captured it in writing.
    When a good idea comes your way, write it down — on your arm if necessary. Not every idea will have value but capture it first and evaluate later.
    Daydream, Painter Salvador Dali used to lie on a sofa, holding a spoon. As he began to fall asleep, Dali would drop the spoon onto a plate on the floor. Shocked awake by the sound, he would immediately sketch the images seen in his mind in that fertile world of semi-sleep.
    Everyone experiences this strange state and can take advantage of it. Try Dali's trick, or just allow yourself to daydream. Often, the "three bs" — bed, bath and bus — are productive. Anywhere you can be with your thoughts undisturbed, you'll find ideas emerge freely.
    Seek challenges. Try inviting friends and business associates from different areas of your life to a party. Bringing people of different ages and social status together may help you think in new ways.
    Edwin Land, one of America's most productive inventors, claimed the idea leading to his invention of the Polaroid camera came from his three-year-old daughter. On a visit to Santa Fe in 1943, she asked why she couldn't see the picture he had just taken. During the next hour, as Land walked around Santa Fe, all he had learned about chemistry came together: "The camera and the film became clear to me. In my mind they were so real that I spent several hours describing them. "
    Expand your world. Many discoveries in science, engineering and the arts mix ideas from different fields. Consider " The Two-String Problem. " Two widely separated strings hang from a ceiling. Even though you can't reach both at once, is it possible to tie their ends together, using only a pair of pliers ?
    One college student tied the pliers to one string and set it in motion like a pendulum. As it swung back and forth, he walked quickly to the other string and drew it as far forward as it would reach. Then he caught the swinging string when it passed near him and tied the two ends.
    Asked how he succeeded, the student explained he had just come from a physics class on pendulum motion. What he had learned in one context transferred to a completely different one.
    This principle works elsewhere as well. To enhance your creativity, learn some-thing new. If you're a banker, take up tap dancing; if you're a nurse, try a course in vitamin therapy. Read a book on a new subject. Change your daily newspaper. The new will combine with the old in novel and potentially fascinating ways. Becoming more creative means paying attention to that endless flow of ideas you produce, and learning to capture and act upon the new that's within you.

Words: 726

NEW WORDS

chill
v.   make cold; cool 使变冷;使扫兴
n.   coldness 寒冷,寒气

plastic
a.   塑料的
n.   1. (often pl.) 塑料,塑料制品
2. 信用卡

dip
v.   lower or drop (something) into a liquid 蘸;浸

▲applaud
v.   express good opinion or favour, especially by clapping the hands 拍手喝彩,称赞

remark
vi.  express a short, relaxed comment 评论
n.   comment, usu. not official 谈论,评论

decade
n.   a period of ten years 十年

enquiry (inquiry)
n.   close examination of a matter in a search for information or truth 调查,探究

convince
vt.  bring by the use of arguing or facts to a firm belief or a course of action 使确信,使信服

capacity
n.   1. the ability to produce, experience, understand or learn sth. 才能, 能力
2. the ability to hold or contain sth. 容量,容积

▲impulse
n.   a sudden wish or urge 冲动,刺激

potential
n.   qualities that exist and can be developed 潜力,潜能
a.   that may happen or become so, although not actually existing at present 潜在的

potentially
ad.  possibly 可能地

reservoir
n.   1. 水库,蓄水池
2. a large or extra supply; a nest egg or quantity held back [喻](知识、精力等的)贮藏;蓄积

concrete
a.   of or relating to a material thing or group of things rather than to an idea 具体的

capture
v.   1. seize; take violently or with force 捕获
2. seize; occupy 夺得;占领

◆fleeting
a.   passing quickly; not lasting long 飞逝的,转瞬即逝的

rabbit
n.   兔子

carriage
n.   a wheeled vehicle, especially a four-wheeled horse-drawn passenger vehicle, often of beautiful design 四轮马车

scarcely
ad.  1. only just 刚刚……就
2. almost not 几乎没有

fortunately
ad.  by good chance; luckily 幸运地

evaluate
v.   examine and judge carefully 评价,估计

painter
n.   a person who paints 画家

sofa
n.   a comfortable seat with raised arms and a back and wide enough for usually 2 or 3 people 沙发

sketch
vt.  make a quick or simple drawing or painting 勾画,绘草图

fertile
a.   1. (of a person's mind) inventive; full of new ideas(思想、创意)丰富的
2. (of land) which produces or can produce good crops 富饶的

advantage
n.   a relatively good or lucky position; exceptional means 优势;有利条件

▲productive
a.   1. achieving a lot 有收益的,富有成效的
2. producing or able to produce goods or crops, esp. in large quantities 多产的

associate
n.   a partner or colleague 合作人,同事

inventor
n.   a person who invents something 发明者,发明家

claim
v.   state to be true, especially when open to question 声言;自称

engineering
n.   the science or profession of an engineer 工程(学)

string
n.   a strong, thick thread; anything like this, especially used for tying things up 细绳

◆pliers
n.   a type of small tool made of 2 crossed pieces of metal with long flat jaws at one end, used to hold small things or to bend and cut wire 钳子

motion
n.   the act or process of changing position or place 运动

▲pendulum
n.   a weight hanging from a fixed point so as to swing freely 钟摆

swing
vi.  move back and forth or round and round, from a fixed point once or regularly 摇摆

context
n.   1. the general conditions in which an event, action, etc. takes place (事情发生的)环境,背景
2. words that come before and after a word, phrase, statement, etc. helping to show what its meaning is 上下文

transfer
v.   move from one place or job to another 调动,迁移

principle
n.   a basic truth, law, or theory 原则,原理

elsewhere
ad.  in or to a different or another place 在别处,到别处

enhance
vt.  make greater, as in value, beauty, or standing; increase 提高,增强

vitamin
n.   natural organic matter used for health or healing 维生素

therapy
n.   the treatment of illness 治疗;理疗

▲fascinate
v.   hold a strong interest or appeal (for) 使着迷

endless
a.   being or seeming to be without an end or a limit 无止境的,无穷的

PHRASES AND EXPRESSIONS

right away
at once; without delay 立刻

act upon
act according to 依照……行动

come one's way
occur so that one has it or gets it 发生在某人身上,可以被某人利用

fall asleep
go into the state of sleeping 睡着

take advantage of
make use of 利用

at once
at the same time; all at one time 同时

set sth. in motion
cause sth. to start moving 使……运转起来

back and forth
move back and go ahead or forward 来回,前后

take up
begin to spend time learning or doing (something) 开始,着手做

tap dancing
a style of dancing in which the dancers wear special shoes with pieces of metal on the hells and toes. The shoes make clicking noises as the dancers move their feet 踢踏舞

PROPER NAMES

Edison
爱迪生(1847-1931),美国发明家

Picasso
毕加索(1881-1973),西班牙画家,20世纪最多产和最有影响的画家之一

Shakespeare
莎士比亚(1564-1616),英国戏剧家和诗人
 
Ludwig van Beethoven
路德维格·范·贝多芬(1770-1827),德国作曲家

Salvador Dali
萨尔瓦多·达利(1904-1989),西班牙超现实主义画家
 
Edwin Land
埃德温·兰德(1909-1991),美国发明家,宝丽来的发明者

Polaroid
n.   a trademark used for a camera and film that produce instant photographs 宝丽来相机

Santa Fe
圣菲,美国新墨西哥州首府,位于该州中北部,阿尔伯克基东北方

Section C

Great Ideas

    Some of the most important inventions of the past 2,000 years may surprise you.

    Want to get rich? Become famous? You don't have to be a film star or a basketball player or a musician. You can do it by becoming an inventor. Over the past 2,000 years inventors have created machines and articles that have changed the world.
    And it's not just the big ideas like computers, printing presses and steam engines (蒸汽机) that become big things.
    Just think how the past 2,000 years would be different without these "small" big ideas:

    It's a clean sweep
    In 1871, American inventor Ives McGaffey realized that if you turned an air pump (气泵)the opposite way, you would have a machine that could pick up dirt. He called his machine an aspirator(吸气器). The huge device was powered by a steam engine.
    Another American, James Murray Spangler, designed a much lighter machine in 1907 with an electric engine. He sold the idea, now called a vacuum cleaner(真空吸尘器),to a man named William H. Hoover. The company is still making Hoover vacuums and we're a little bit cleaner for it.

    Stuck on you
    Inventors get interested when they find out people don't like the way something works.
    One day in 1923, young lab worker Richard Drew from the Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing(制造)Company heard workers in an automobile body shop complaining. It seems they could not find the right kind of tape to put on cars while they painted them. Either the tape stuck too much and ruined the paint job or it fell off too soon and the paint ran onto another part of the car.
    Drew spent two years creating a tape that stuck just enough. We know it now as masking tape. But Drew wasn't done. In 1930, he created a see-through, water-proof(防水的), cellophane(薄膜)adhesive(胶粘剂). The company called it Scotch tape and started selling it by the ton.

    Accidents can work wonders
    In the late 1940s, engineer Percy L. Spencer of the Raytheon Company was experimenting with high-frequency(高频率)radio waves. These had been used to find enemy planes and ships in World War II. Spencer noticed the waves had made a chocolate bar(块)in his pocket soft. Could these waves be used to heat food?
    Spencer soon invented the microwave oven(微波炉), which made millions of dollars for Raytheon and millions of bags of popcorn(爆米花)for kids everywhere.

    Geniuses need not apply(应用,努力)
    Alexander Graham Bell was a teacher of the deaf. He did not know much about electricity. That was probably a good thing because most electricity masters did not think a voice could be sent over a wire. In three years of day and night effort, Bell figured out how to send sound over a changing electric current. He got his patent(专利)on the telephone on March 7, 1876. It is one of the most valuable patents ever given by the U.S.

    Keep your trousers on
    In 1907, engineer Gideon Sundback got interested in improving a "hookless(无钩的)fastener(扣件)" patented in 1893. It was supposed to do away with the tiring work of buttoning the many buttons on clothes of the day. But the fastener did not work well.
    For years Sundback lay awake half the night trying to solve the problem. In 1913 he designed a hookless fastener that worked. But no one made much money on the invention until a Canadian businessman decided to call it a "zipper(拉链)". Soon millions were sold every year and trousers everywhere stopped falling down.
    Now that's a tiny — yet BIG — idea.

    Words: 626
 


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