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新视野大学英语读写教程1 Unit 10

2010年05月22日  所属:大学英语  来源:互联网  作者:新视野大学英语读写教程1

《新视野大学英语读写教程》第一册1Unit10:课文、词汇、练习单词免费下载:Being Honest and Open;Web Site Resources:The Best Aid for Cheating? How not to Cheat?

Unit 10


Section A

Pre-reading Activities

First Listening
    Having ideas about a story before you read it is an important reading skill. Please listen to a very short piece of recording.

Second Listening
    Now listen to the recording for the second time and try to the best of your ability to answer the following questions.
    1. What must you have in order to be honest?
    2. What are the three principles that constitute honesty?
    3. What two qualities help make relationships stronger?

Being Honest and Open

    My grandparents believed that you were either honest or you were not. There was no middle point. They had a simple saying hanging on their living-room wall: "Life is like a field of newly fallen snow. Where I choose to walk every step will show." They didn't have to talk about it; they demonstrated this truth by their life style.
    They understood instinctively that integrity involves having a personal standard of morality and boundaries that does not sell out to convenience and that is not relative to the situation at hand. Integrity is an inner compass for judging your behavior.
    Unfortunately, integrity is in short supply today — and getting scarcer. But it is the real bottom line in every area of society and a discipline we must demand of ourselves. A good test for this value is to apply what I call the "Integrity Triangle", which consists of three key principles:
    Stand firmly for your convictions when confronted with personal pressure. There's a story told about a surgical nurse's assistance during her first day on the medical team at a well-known hospital. She was responsible for ensuring that all surgical instruments and materials were accounted for during an operation. The nurse said to the surgeon, "You've only removed 11 sponges, and we used 12. We need to find the last one."
    "I removed them all," the surgeon assured her. "We'll close now."
    "You can’t do that, sir," protested the nurse. "Think of the patient."
    Smiling, the surgeon lifted his foot and showed the nurse the twelfth sponge. "You'll do just fine in this or any other hospital," he assured her.
    When you know you're right, you can't concede.
    Always give others credit that is rightfully theirs. Don’t be afraid of those who might have a better idea or who might even be more intelligent than you are.
    David Ogilvy, founder of the advertising firm Ogilvy & Mather, clarified this point to his newly appointed office heads by sending each of them a Russian nesting doll with five progressively smaller figures inside.
    His message was contained in the smallest doll: "If each of us hires people who are smaller than we are, we shall become a company of dwarfs. But if each of us hires people who are bigger than we are, Ogilvy & Mather will become a company of giants." And that is precisely what O & M became — one of the largest and most respected advertising organizations in the world.
    Be honest and open about who you really are. People who lack genuine core values rely on external factors — their looks or status — in order to feel good about themselves. Inevitably they will do everything they can to preserve this false mask, but they will do very little to enhance their inner value and personal growth.
    So be yourself. Don't engage in a personal cover-up of areas that are unpleasing in your life. "Tough times never last but tough people do," as Robert Schuller says. In other words, face reality and be mature in your responses to life’s challenges.
    Self-respect and a clear conscience are powerful components of integrity and are the basis for enriching your relationships with others. Integrity means you do what you do because it's right and not just fashionable or politically correct. A life of principle, of not yielding to the tempting attractions of an easy morality, will always win the day. It will take you forward into the twenty-first century without having to check your tracks in a rear-view mirror. My grandparents taught me that.

    Words: 596

NEW WORDS

living-room
n.   a main room for general use in a house 客厅

demonstrate
vt.  show clearly 演示;证明
vi.  take part in a march or meeting to protest or to make demands 参加游行;示威

▲integrity
n.   honesty 诚实;正直

▲morality
n.   1. moral values; right or wrong 道德
2. quality; goodness 德行

boundary
n.   1. (figurative) limit 界限;局限
2. dividing line 分界线

convenience
n.   1. comfort 舒适;便利
2. usefulness 有用;方便

inner
a.   1. unexpressed; secret 内心的;未表达出来的
2. inside 内在的;内部的

compass
n.   1. an instrument for showing direction, with a needle that points to the north 指南针
2. an instrument for drawing circles 圆规

scarce
a.   not much or many compared with what is wanted; hard to find 稀少

apply
v.   1. give or have an effect; use for a purpose(使)产生作用,适用于;运用
2. request officially 申请
3. cause to work hard; devote 致力于

triangle
n.   a figure or shape with 3 straight sides and 3 corners 三角(形)

consist
vi.  (of) be made up of 由……组成

assistance
n.   [U](formal) help or support 帮助,援助

ensure
vt.  1. make sure or certain 确保,担保
2. make sure of getting; secure 保证得到

▲surgeon
n.   a doctor who does surgery 外科医生

▲sponge
n.   a simple sea animal with a rubber-like body; a piece of plastic or rubber material full of holes used for washing, cleaning, etc. 海绵

assure
vt.  1. tell positively or confidently 郑重告知
2. make (oneself) sure or certain; convince 使确信

protest
v.   1. make complaint; object 反对;抗议
2. declare seriously 宣称;声明
n.   1. a statement that denies or objects 抗议
2. a serious statement 宣称;声明

concede
v.   1. yield 让步
2. admit as true, often unwillingly 承认

intelligent
a.   clever 聪明

clarify
vt.  make clear; explain 弄清楚;解释

appoint
vt.  choose (someone) for a job, a position, etc. 任命

nest
vi.  build or use as a nest 筑巢
n.   a depressed place built or found by a bird for a home and a place to hold its eggs 巢

doll
n.   a small figure of a person, especially for a child to play with 洋娃娃

progressive
a.   1. moving forward continuously or by stages 连续的;一步一步的
2. improving or changing according to new ideas 不断改善的

progressively
ad.  in a way of going from one to the next; step by step in sequence; bit by bit 逐步;逐渐

▲dwarf
n.   a person of much less than usual size 侏儒
vt.  cause to appear small by comparison(由于对比)使显得矮小

giant
n.   1. a person who is much bigger than usual 巨人
2. (figurative) a person of great ability 伟人
a.   unusually large or important 巨大的;重要的
genuine
a.   real; true 真实的

core
n.   1. (figurative) the central or most important part 中心或重要部分
2. the hard, central part, containing the seeds, of fruits like apples and pears 核

rely
vi.  (on) trust; have confidence in 依靠;依赖

external
a.   1. (figurative) easily seen but not essential; on the surface 外在的;表面的
2. outside 外部的;外面的

inevitable
a.   which cannot be prevented from happening 不可避免的

inevitably
ad.  unavoidably; certainly 不可避免地

preserve
vt.  1. keep; protect 保持;保护
2. store 储存

mask
n.   a covering for the face to hide or protect it 面具;面罩
vt.  1. put a mask over 戴面具
2. hide 掩盖

tough
a.   1. hard; difficult 很难的
2. strong 结实的;有力的

conscience
n.   the sense of right and wrong 良心;良知

component
n.   a necessary or essential part 成分;部件

basis
n.   (pl. bases) 1. foundation 基础
2. the main part; base 主体;基地

▲enrich
vt.  1. improve 改善;改进
2. make rich or richer 使丰富

relationship
n.   1. friendship or connection between people 亲属关系;友好关系
2. connection 关系;联系

fashionable
a.   popular; following the fashion 时髦的;时尚的

yield
v.   1. give up; quit 屈服;放弃
2. produce 出产;生产

tempt
vt.  draw in; invite 诱惑

attraction
n.   1. (figurative) drawing power; pull 魅力
2. a thing that delights or attracts people 吸引人的东西

rear
a.   at the back; in the back 后面的
n.   the back part; back 后面;背后

rear-view
n.   a sight of what is behind 后视

mirror
n.   a piece of glass in which one can see oneself 镜子
vt.  show; reflect 折射

PHRASES AND EXPRESSIONS

middle point
(figurative) a position which is between two very different ones 中间道路;折中

sell out (to)
let down one's cause or one's side (to sb.) 背叛事业或立场

at hand
1. near in time or place 即将到来;近在手边
2. being considered 在考虑之中

in short supply
not enough; not quite available 缺货;短缺

the bottom line
the most important factor; the main or essential point 重要因素;关键的东西

demand of
expect (sth.) from (sb. or sth.) 期待;要求

consist of
be made up of 由……组成

stand for
1. hold (an opinion); mean or believe (sth. such as a principle) 主张;相信
2. accept or bear (sth. bad); bear with 承受;忍受
3. represent 代表

account for
1. give a statement about sth. (esp. money) 对(钱等)东西做交代
2. be or give a reason for (sth. or doing sth.) 说明(原因);解释(原因)
think of
1. take into account; have... in one's mind 考虑;为……设想
2. have thoughts concerning (sb. or sth.) 回想,想起
3. imagine (sth. or doing sth.) 想像

do fine
do a good job 干得很好

give (the) credit
give (sb.) praise (for sth.) 赞扬

rely on/upon
depend on/upon 依赖;依靠

feel good
feel happy, confident, pleased with oneself 感觉好

engage in
1. (cause to) take part in or work at (sth.); make (oneself) busy in (sth. or doing sth.) 参与
2. cause (sb. or sth.) to be concerned in (sth.)(使)关心

in other words
that is (to say); put a different way; differently expressed 换言之

win the day
(also carry/gain the day) win in a competition, etc.; be successful 赢;成功
PROPER NAMES

David Ogilvy
大卫·奥格尔维(人名)

Ogilvy & Mather
奥美广告公司

Russia
俄国(地名)
 
Russian
a.   1. 俄国的;俄罗斯的
2. 俄国人的;俄罗斯人的
3. 俄语的
n.   1. 俄国人;俄罗斯人
2. 俄语

Robert Schuller
罗伯特·舒勒(人名)

Section B

Web Site Resources:
  The Best Aid for Cheating?

    SAN FRANCISCO (CNN) — For generations of students, writing term papers has been a major source of nerves and frustration, if not the ultimate homework nightmare. But for those with Internet access, illicit resources are just a few links away.
    The contemporary student who wants to fake a term paper does not have to search far. All one has to do is to go to the appropriate Web site, where online papers can either be purchased, ordered, or downloaded for free.
    Collegiate Care Research Assistance, for instance, may do the job. Do you want to "write" a paper on "Hamlet’s irreconcilable moral dilemmas"? Simply hand over $29.75, and the essay is yours.
    For those who find this too great an expense, there is an alternative. Collegiate Care, with its "highest quality papers at the lowest possible prices", offers on-file papers for $5.95 per page. So, a few pages may just do the trick for the cost-conscious students.
    Genius Papers, another student assistance site, offers "high-quality" and "low-priced" term papers. "You will be happy and successful," the web site promises potential consumers.
    If you are too lazy or simply too busy writing your own term paper, Genius Papers is readily available. For a one-time fee of $9.95, you get access to pre-written papers for an entire semester.
    Some sites, such as Term Paper Emporium and Absolutely Free: Online Essays offer course papers for free. Simply press the button and download — if you find the paper you want, that is.
    Students are, of course, fully aware of these web site resources, and some people worry that the Internet, once hailed as the ultimate learning tool, could become the best aid yet for cheating.
    For teachers, the problem is figuring out whether a student’s author-ship is authentic. But, as teaching assistant Jane Morrison explained, the task may not be too difficult for the perceiving teacher.
    "Students who have gotten it off the Internet don’t look at me, twitch a little bit and look at their feet. And students who wrote every bit of it can talk about the paper very intelligently and look me in the eye," Morrison said.
    Faking term papers is nothing new, and stolen intellectual property has been  marketed for years. But the appearance of the Internet raises the issue: Is this new technology making cheating more widespread?
    A senior official at Berkeley doubts it. "Students who are inclined to cheat are going to cheat regardless of the technology. I think it’s sort of a cynical notion to think that this new tool is going to spread the incidence of cheating," Gary Handman said.
    This view was backed by Berkeley graduate student Arianne Chernock, who says that, after all, students have to decide what’s best for themselves. "It’s a question of honesty. We’re here to learn, so we’ve got to make the most of it ourselves."
    And inventive teachers can make their assignments almost cheat-proof.
    "If you structure the assignment in a creative way, and if students, for instance, have to transform the information into a hand-out, or do a drama, or write an account in first person narrative, then you may curb illicit work," said library media teacher Leslie Farmer.
    That kind of strategy, some experts say, will basically force students to do more than simply download their education.

    Words: 571

NEW WORDS

▲web
n.   1. computer network (计算机)网络
2. a net of thin threads made by a spider 蜘蛛网

cheat
v.   act in a dishonest way for one's own benefit 欺骗
n.   a person who cheats 骗子

nerve
n.   1. threadlike part in the body that carries feelings and messages to and from the brain 神经
2. courage; strength or control of mind 勇气;胆量
3. disrespectful manners 厚颜

ultimate
a.   1. greatest 最大的
2. at the final or farthest distance; being at the end or happening in the end 最终的;最后的

nightmare
n.   1. a bad, frightening, or terrible experience or event 恐怖的经历;可怕的事情
2. an unpleasant and terrible dream 恶梦

■illicit
a.   not allowed; unlawful 非法的

link
n.   tie; connection 纽带
vt.  join or connect 连接
contemporary
a.   1.modern; of the present 当代的
2.of the same time 同代的
n.   a person who belongs to the same period of time 同代人

▲fake
vt.  1. make a copy in order to trick 伪造;造假
2. pretend 假装
n.   a person or thing that is not what he/she/it looks like; something that is not real 假货;赝品

appropriate
a.   right for the occasion; proper; suitable; or fitting 合适的,适当的

download
vt.  transfer sth. to or from a computer network 下载

▲reconcile
vt.  1. make peace between; make friendly again 和解
2. find agreement between (two actions or ideas) 调和

irreconcilable
a.   impossible to bring into agreement 不可调和的

▲dilemma
n.   a difficult choice between two (bad) things; a problem 进退维谷;难处

essay
n.   a short piece of writing on a subject; an article 文章;短文

expense
n.   cost or charge 花费;费用

on-file
a.   recorded or kept in a file or in a database of information 存档的

per
prep.for each 每

consumer
n.   a person who buys and uses goods and services 消费者

readily
ad.  1. willingly 甘愿
2. quickly and easily 轻易地

fee
n.   money paid for professional services, to join a club, etc. 费;酬劳

semester
n.   (AmE) either of the two periods into which a year at universities is divided; (BrE) term 学期

■emporium
n.   a large store selling many different things 商场

▲hail
vt.  1. recognize (someone) as important by calling out (a name of honour, etc.) 向……欢呼;拥戴(某人)为……
2. call out to (someone) by name or in greeting 招呼

author
n.   the writer 作者

▲authentic
a.   known to be real; genuine 真实的

perceive
vt.  1. see 看见
2. take in with the mind; understand 理解;明白

◆twitch
v.   move with a quick, sharp pull of a muscle 抽动
n.   a slight, unconscious movement of a muscle or a quick, sharp movement of some part of the body 抽动

intellectual
a.   1. showing unusual reasoning powers 有知识的
2. concerning the ability to reason (rather than to feel or act) 理智的;智力的
n.   a person who is well-informed and intelligent, and interested in activities involving the intellect 知识分子

property
n.   1. something owned; possessions 财产
2. (area of) land and/or building(s) 房地产
3. a quality, power, or effect that belongs automatically to something 属性

issue
n.   1. an important point 要点;问题
2. a single printing of a newspaper or magazine, etc. (书、报等)期、号
vt.  1. send out; put forth 颁布;发行
2. print; publish 出版;刊行

incline
v.   1. (to) tend to; feel drawn to 倾向;意欲
2. tend to influence or cause (someone) to feel, think, etc. 使倾向;使意欲

▲cynical
a.   not believing; doubting or making fun of 玩世不恭的;好挖苦人的

notion
n.   1. idea; understanding 思想;理解
2. an opinion 见解

▲incidence
n.   range of happening or influence 发生率;影响范围

view
n.   1. an opinion 观点
2. what one can see 眼界;视域
vt.  1. consider; regard 考虑
2. see; watch 看;观察

proof
a.   having or giving protection 能防……的
n.   way of showing that something is true 证据

cheat-proof
a.   protected against cheating 能防止受骗的
 
structure
vt.  order so that each part is properly related to others; build; put together 组织;构造;建造

transform
vt.  change completely 改变;改造

hand-out (handout)
n.   1. a paper containing a review of information or subjects which will be dealt with in a lecture or talk 印发的讲稿等
2. something given for free 施舍物

drama
n.   1. a play 剧(单个戏剧)
2. plays 戏剧(总称)

▲ narrative
n.   1. a story or tale 故事
2. the practice or act of telling stories; narration 叙述;讲故事
a.   that narrates or tells 叙述的

▲ curb
vt.  hold in check; restrain 抑制;控制
n.   check; limit 抑制;控制

media
n.   television, radio, newspapers, etc. 媒介;媒体

strategy
n.   1. able planning and management of anything 策略
2. the art of planning movements of armies or forces in war 战略;兵法

basically
ad.  simply; essentially 基本地

PHRASES AND EXPRESSIONS

for free
without charge or cost 免费

hand over
give to another; deliver 递交

do the trick
do what one wants done; accomplish the purpose 达到目的

get/have access to
have the right or permission to approach, enter, or use; have admittance of 有权得到、使用等

hail as
recognize (sth.) as (sth. good) 称赞……为……

figure out
1.understand (sth. or sb.) with difficulty 理解
2. consciously study; find out by using figures 想出,得出

get off
(cause to) be removed from (sth. or sb.) 搬移;取走

a little bit
to a small range or degree 有点

be inclined to
be likely to; tend to 倾向于;容易(做)

sort of
to some degree; rather 有点;有几分

make the most of
get the best use or greatest gain from 充分利用

PROPER NAMES

San Francisco
(美)旧金山(三藩市)

CNN
Cable News Network(美国)有线新闻网

Collegiate Care
“大学关心”网

Hamlet
哈姆雷特(莎士比亚戏剧《哈姆雷特》的男主人公)

Jane Morrison
简·莫里森(人名)
 
Berkeley
(此处指)加州大学伯克利分校

Gary Handman
加里· 汉德曼(人名)

Arianne Chernock
阿里亚尼· 彻诺克(人名)
 
Leslie Farmer
莱斯利· 法默(人名)

Section C

How not to Cheat?

    You're taking a science test and are unsure of an answer. While the teacher is busy, you notice you can see the test answers of the student next to you.
    Would you look closer?
    Are you a cheater?
    More than half the kids in a national survey are. The "1998 Report Card on the Ethics of American Youth" found that 7 out of every 10 high school kids have cheated on a test at least once. Including all grades, the number is more than 6 out of 10.
    And reports of cheating are increasing. There's intense pressure for kids to succeed. Sometimes they feel they have to — at any cost.
    Parents, teachers, even friends can put a lot of pressure on students to get good grades. Some parents threaten to punish for bad grades or offer rewards for good marks.
    Most students think about cheating at some time. It could be copying someone else's answers; it could even be giving answers to somebody else.
    "If they're doing really badly in a subject, that makes kids want to cheat so they can get a better grade," says first class Scout Ben Patrick, 11, from Troop 69, Palatine, Illinois.
    David Kimwell, 16, of Provo, Utah, agrees, "Kids are driven to cheat when there is pressure to succeed."
    But these kids also know that succeeding on a test by cheating is not really succeeding at all.
    When students cheat, they are less likely to really understand their schoolwork. And when you don't understand your schoolwork, your grades will probably suffer; cheating can only get you so far.
    The bottom line is: If you don't really learn it now, you'll probably have to learn it later!
    Here's how not to cheat:
    Talk to your parents. Think about the kinds of pressures they might be putting on you. Sometimes parents think rewarding or punishing will encourage kids to work harder, but often they don't encourage at all. Let your parents know how you feel, and let them know how they can reduce school stress for you, while still encouraging good grades.
    Change your study habits. Have you sometimes felt the urge to cheat when you didn't study well enough for a test? Try changing your study habits. Study with a friend or have your parents help. Do not force all your studying into the last minute, and get a good night's sleep before a test. Finally, make practice tests so you can focus on those areas in which you need the most work.
    Talk to your friends. If you feel stress to get good grades — and maybe cheat — because your friends get better grades, talk to them. Ask how they prepare for tests and suggest studying in a group. You might get some ideas from them.
    An honest C will get you much further than a not-so-honest A. Face it: Cheaters never succeed — and pay a high price when caught.
    Whether you're a junior school student or a young adult at college, get caught cheating and you'll pay the price — usually a very high one. Here's how schools handle cheaters:
    For junior school students: a strict talk with the student and a call to the parents. Repeat cheaters are removed from in-school activities.
    For middle school students: a zero or no grade on the assignment or the test on which the student cheated. Students may be removed from in-school activities, and parents will be told.
    For university students, like those in Harvard, Cambridge, or Massachusetts: cheaters are normally required to leave for two back-to-back terms.

    Words: 614


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