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北京外国语大学英语专业考研2003年基础英语原题

2012年06月08日  所属:英语专业考研  来源:考研论坛  作者:youmumzky

北京外国语大学英语专业考研真题:2003年基础英语试题原题。

北京外国语大学英语专业考研真题:2003年基础英语试题

The news that McDonald’s is being sued by Hindus and vegetarians for glazing their french fries
with beef extract sent something of a frisson through me. Not merely because I am a vegetarian
myself, but because we have come to the stage when people in America now feel entitled to expect McDonald’s, the cathedral of the beefburger, to serve them something that is 100 percent vegetarian. What an evolution! When I came to the United States as a graduate student in 1975, to be vegetarian was a crippling handicap. The only food I could eat at the dorm cafeterias (other than breakfast) was salads. There were the occasional tasteless boiled vegetables , meant to accompany the main dish, but to one accustomed to the flavors and seasonings of richly varied Indian cuisine, these were barely edible. When I fled the campus to seek culinary solace in the wider world, all I could find were pizzas and submarine sandwiches. Great Boston boasted but one Indian restaurant, and as an impecunious student I couldn’t afford to go more than once a semester. At the rare dinner parties I was invited to, the hostesses heaped carrots and peas on my plate —— and, if I was lucky, mashed potatoes. If that wasn’t bad enough, I discovered that most Americans associated vegetarianism with the counterculture, a fad for pot-addled hippies in beads and sandals chanting “om” between crunching on those leaves they weren’t smoking. Merely confessing I was vegetarian meant being seen, at best, as some earnest, otherworldly fringe figure, probably full of dubiously utopian ideas about world peace and the environment. No one believed I didn’t even like animals. I just did not want to chew on their corpses. How things have changed. A way of life once confined to a few rarefied precincts of LA has gone mainstream. According to the Vegetarian Times, 7 percent of Americans consider themselves vegetarian —— about 18 million people. A 1999 poll by the Vegetarian Resource Group found that 57 percent of the population “sometimes, often or always orders a vegetarian item when eating out.” And since trends are made by the young, it’s striking that 6 percent of 18-to-29-year-old s never eat fish, fowl or meat.
 It’s become chic to shun meat. I recently attended a cocktail reception at a posh New York hotel where all the hors d’oeuvres were vegetarian, in honor of the chief guest, singer Paul Mc Cartney. A celebrity-studded “Say No to Veal” dinner at New York’s Plaza Hotel was a sellout on May 20. Organic vegetarian restaurants are sprouting on both coasts. Supermarket shelves are stacked with cans of soup and beans labeled VEGETARIAN. More and more natural-foods companies are being established, and many are being taken over by major corporations, always quick to spot a future business opportunity. It doesn’t hurt that red meat is losing much of its allure these days, what with mad cow, foot-and-mouth and all the rest. The animal-rights group PETA claims 19,000 Americans are switching to a meat-free diet every week.
 It also doesn’t hurt, of course, that Americans have become more health conscious than ever. The American Dietetic Association reports that vegetarians “have lower morbidity and mortality rates from several chronic degenerative diseases than do non-vegetarians.” Soybeans not only give you protein, they’re important sources of isoflavones that may help prevent some cancers. Vegetables have always been thought of as being good for you, but what has changed is that they have also become pleasurable to eat. Immigration in recent years has brought to America a wealth of new cuisines, whose aficionados know what to do with veggies. Menus now offer vegetarian options that don’t involve a single steamed Brussels sprout —— something only non-vegetarians can imagine a vegetarian wanting to eat.
 One hundred and fifty years ago, that American original, Henry David Thoreau, had no doubt that“the human race, in its gradual improvement,” would stop eating meat. McDonald’s has apologizedto vegetarians offended by its beef-flavored fries. Maybe the day is not too far off when it will beoffering McSoyburgers, even in Peoria.

1. Explain the following sentences or phrases in English, bringing out the implied meaning, if
there is any: (24 points)
1) … sent something of a frisson through me

2) … the cathedral o the beefburger

3) When I fled the campus to seek culinary solace in the wider world

4) .. hasgone mainstream

5) It’s become chic to shun meat

6) … was a sellout

2. Give a brief answer to each of the following questions: (15 points)
1) What was like to be a vegetarian in the United States in the past?

2) What changes, according to this article, have taken place in recent years? 3) What, in your opinion, accounts for the choice of some people to become vegetarians?

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