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自学考试《英语词汇学》考点笔记(3)

2008年05月17日  所属:英语词汇(学)  来源:中国自考网  作者:佚名

以下是我整理的英语词汇学的资料,自学考试《英语词汇学》考点笔记第三部分。我在考的时候主要就是靠这个东东。希望对还没有过的人有所帮助。大家请注意:笔记中大多数是以名词解释的形式出现的,这些是绝对的基础,应该一字不漏的背下来。其实不少简答题也就是几个定义的汇总,再加上个例子就可以拿满分了。区分两个词的区别,主要还是指明其各自的定义。

       第三章
  1. Morpheme —— A morpheme is the smallest meaningful unit of a language. (The smallest functional unit in the composition of words.)

  2.Morph—— A morpheme must be realized by discrete units. These actual spoken minimal carriers of meaning are morphs.

  3.Monomorphenic words – morphemes are realized by single morphs.

  4.Allomorph——Some morphemes are realized by more than one morph according to their position. Such alternative morphs are allomorphemes. E.g. the morpheme of plurality (-s) has a number if allomorphemes in different sound context, e.g. in cats/s/, in bags/z/, in matches/iz/.

  5. Free morphemes or Free root —— The morphemes have complete meaning and van be used as free grammatical units in sentences, e.g. cat, walk. They are identical with root words. morphemes which are independent of other morphemes are considered to be free.

  6. Bound Morphemes —— The morphemes cannot occur as separate words. They are bound to other morphemes to form words, e.g. recollection (re+collect+ion) collect – free morpheme re-and –ion are bound morphemes. (include bound root and affix) Bound morphemes are found in derived words.

  7. Bound root —— A bound root is that part of the word that carries the fundamental meaning just like a free root. Unlike a free root, it is a bound form and has to combine with other morphemes to make words. Take -dict- for example: it conveys the meaning of “say or speak” as a Latin root, but not as a word. With the prefix pre-(=before) we obtain the verb predict meaning “tell beforehand”。 Contradict “ speak against”。 Bound roots are either Latin or Greek.

  Although they are limited in number, their productive power is amazing.

  8. Affixes —— Affixes are forms that are attached to words or word elements to modify meaning or function. Almost affixes are bound morphemes.

  9. Inflectional morphemes or Inflectional affixes —— Affixes attaches to the end of words to indicate grammatical relationships are inflectional, thus known as inflectional morphemes. The number of inflectional affixes is small and stable.

  a. There is the regular plural suffix -s(-es) which is added to nouns such as machines,desks.

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